Creatinine is the end product of the creatinine-phosphate reaction. This substance is formed in the muscles, and then released into the blood. By determining its level in the blood of a pet, you can diagnose several of its pathological conditions. Elevated creatinine in a cat indicates primarily a violation of the excretory system.
This substance is formed in the body of an animal from creatine protein, which is a source of energy and nutrition for skeletal muscles. The normal level of its content in the blood may vary depending on the weight of the cat and the speed of metabolic processes occurring in his body. In young and mobile animals, this indicator is usually higher than in old ones.
The norm of creatinine in the blood of domestic cats is 40-130 µmol/liter. This indicator, among other things, may depend on the sex of the animal and the development of its muscle mass.
When the level rises
Most often, the presence of too much of this substance in the blood of an animal indicates kidney failure or nephropathy. The creatinine-phosphate reaction occurs when the cat's muscles contract. In this case, the connection breaks up into three components:
All three components are subsequently excreted from the body of the animal with urine. If the kidneys are not working well, creatinine is retained in the cat's body. Gradually, it begins to accumulate in the blood of the animal.
To diagnose renal failure only on such a basis as elevated creatinine, however, it is impossible in a cat. If such a pathology is suspected, the veterinarian conducts additional laboratory tests. In this case, the specialist determines the level of urea and urea nitrogen in the blood. In the presence of kidney failure, these indicators will also go off scale.
Sometimes the cause of elevated blood creatinine in a cat is also some kind of liver problem. In addition, such a pathology in an animal can also occur when the body is dehydrated. In this case, the cat additionally increases the density of urine.
Actually, creatinine itself is not a toxic substance. The animal feels bad with its high content precisely because of problems with internal organs.
Disease diagnosis: what to consider?
Causes of elevated blood creatinine in cats can be different. But the level of this substance in the body of an animal can be affected by the following factors:factors:
- strong deficiency of energy substances in the body;
- low-calorie diet;
- weight variation for this particular breed;
- extreme age marks of the animal.
When diagnosing a cat's he alth condition and determining the level of creatinine, all these factors must be taken into account.
When the level of creatinine in the blood rises to 200 µmol/liter, the behavior of the animal, most likely, will not change in any way. The cat's condition will begin to worsen after this figure reaches 300 µmol / liter. With increased creatinine in a cat, the following symptoms may be observed in this case:
- lethargy and weakness;
- diarrhea and vomiting;
- pallor of mucous membranes;
- cessation of urination or reduction in urine output;
- loss of appetite.
The mouth of a cat with high creatinine levels usually smells like urine.
The level of this substance in the blood of animals can be determined and not only in µmol/liter. Sometimes it happens, for example, that the owners are interested in whether the cat has a chance with creatinine up to 1500 mg / dl. This level corresponds to 250-300 µmol/liter. Since creatinine is not a very accurate indicator, it is still premature to talk about the development of PN in this case. The cat's blood should first be checked for urea content. Perhaps this indicator is associated with dehydration or liver pathology.
Forecast ata cat's creatinine of 1200mg/dl might not be too bad either. This level indicates a relatively slight increase in this substance in the body. But diagnosing kidney failure should definitely be done in this case as well.
What you need to know
Sometimes a cat's blood creatinine level remains normal. But such a disease as renal failure, the animal still develops. This usually happens when a cat, for example, picked up on the street, is too exhausted. With insufficient feeding in animals, the volume of muscle mass can sharply decrease. As a result, the level of creatinine in the blood also falls. With renal failure in such an animal, the amount of this substance will be close to normal. But in fact, the content of creatinine for such a condition of the animal can be considered elevated in this case.
How tests are taken
Veterinarians can determine the amount of creatinine by examining both whole blood and plasma or serum. The choice of analysis method depends primarily on what laboratory equipment is available in the clinic.
Blood sampling to determine the level of creatinine can be done at any time of the day. Poor he alth of the cat is also usually not an obstacle to this procedure.
Disadvantages of diagnostics
Normal creatinine in a cat's blood should be equal, thus, 40-130 mmol/liter. But unfortunately, this indicator in such pets can actually fluctuate very widely.In addition to the pet’s weight and activity, it can be influenced by the nature of nutrition, breed characteristics, etc. In addition, the sensitivity of creatinine itself as an indicator of the state of the excretory system is considered not too high. Even with a 50% decrease in kidney filtration due to pathology, the level of this substance in the blood can remain almost normal.
As already mentioned, with elevated creatinine in a cat and suspected kidney failure, doctors often perform additional laboratory tests. The urea level for cats is considered normal at 6-12 mmol/liter. With its increased content, the animal will experience, among other things, the following symptoms:
- lethargy and weakness;
- unsteady gait;
- ammonia breath odor;
- mouth ulcers;
- weight loss;
- feed refusal.
What to do with high content
Determine the level of creatinine in the blood of cats, of course, only in a veterinary clinic. In accordance with the results obtained, the doctor gives the owner of the animal all the necessary recommendations and, if necessary, prescribes additional tests. Doing research on the percentage of urea in the blood with high creatinine in a cat is a must. Kidney failure is a very serious disease. And leaving the animal without medical assistance in the presence of such a pathology, of course, is not worth it.
Cat blood test: transcript
On the level of creatinine in the blood of a cat veterinariansstudies are usually carried out in case of suspicion of kidney disease. If the cause of the animal's discomfort is still unclear, a comprehensive analysis is performed in the clinic. Its decoding usually looks like this:
- HCT - hematocrit. An excess of this substance can signal dehydration of the animal's body or, for example, the development of diabetes in it. The norm of this substance in the blood of a cat is 24-26%;
- HGB - hemoglobin. An elevated level indicates dehydration, a lower level indicates anemia, damage to the hematopoietic organs, starvation. The normal level of hemoglobin in a cat's blood is 80-150%.
- WBC - white blood cells. An increase in readings may indicate leukemia, inflammation, oncology, a decrease in a viral disease, bone marrow disease, and radioactive damage. The normal white blood cell count for cats is 5.5-18.0x109/L.
- RGB - erythrocytes. Elevated levels can indicate dehydration, lack of oxygen, and in some cases kidney and liver disease. A reduced content indicates blood loss, anemia, inflammation. Normal level - 5, 3-10×1012/l.
- ESR - erythrocyte sedimentation rate. An increase in the level may indicate liver and kidney disease, heart attack, oncology, poisoning, shock. There is no reduced ESR. Normally, this figure is 0-13 mm / h.
Also, when performing laboratory tests, the blood of an animal can be checked, for example, for indicators such as eosinophils, neurophils, monocytes, platelets,lymphocytes, etc. Bad blood tests in a cat are, of course, a reason to diagnose the disease and prescribe appropriate treatment.
How to lower blood creatinine levels
This indicator is usually brought back to normal with the help of medications. For example, a veterinarian can prescribe treatment with high creatinine in a cat using Hofitol. The drug is human, and it is sold in ordinary pharmacies. Most often, these tablets are given to animals 2 times a day for half. But, of course, only a veterinarian should prescribe the medicine and choose the dosage.
In chronic renal failure, the treatment of an animal can only be symptomatic. The answer to the question of how to lower creatinine in a cat is various kinds of medications. They are usually prescribed by a veterinarian in combination with other means to improve the condition of a pet and prolong its life.
Causes of kidney failure
Actually, PN itself is not actually a disease. Renal failure is primarily a syndrome of dysfunction of the excretory system. This problem can be caused by:
- poisoning and intoxication;
- vasculitis, pyelonephritis in the kidney area;
- renal stenosis;
- diabetes mellitus in older cats.
To kidney failure in animals may be including hereditary predisposition. When buying an expensive cat, her pedigree is thereforeyou should definitely ask.
Consequences of kidney failure
This pathology should be treated without fail, and immediately. Kidney failure is a very insidious disease. Creatinine itself is a safe substance. But toxic nitrogenous bases, which are also elevated during PN in the blood of cats, destroy vitamins and many other useful substances. An animal with renal insufficiency has a serious violation of the water-s alt balance and acid-base balance.
In case of severe damage, the endocrine function of the adrenal glands of the pet suffers. In the body of a cat, the synthesis of glucocorticoids stops. This eventually leads to hypokleemia and decreased insulin sensitivity, which in turn can lead to diabetes.
Symptoms of kidney failure
So, the cat has elevated creatinine. What does this mean, we found out. Of course, such tests usually cause the owner to worry about the condition of the animal's kidneys. Only a veterinarian can diagnose deficiency. But the owner of the animal with increased indications of creatinine, of course, needs to observe his pet himself. Symptoms of kidney failure in particular are:
- constant unquenchable thirst;
- increased urination;
- urine lightening;
- periodic food refusals.
Sometimes an animal with PN may experience nausea and vomiting. By itself, this symptom does not indicate any disease. Cats speciallyeat grass and various inedible things to cleanse the stomach. But in combination with other symptoms, this symptom can also indicate the presence of PN.
In advanced stages, deficiency symptoms may include:
- cat's inability to swallow food;
- anorexia and dystrophy;
- damage to the nervous system due to toxins;
- appearance of protein and blood in the urine of an animal;
Very often, cats with advanced renal failure have high blood pressure. And this, in turn, can lead to blindness due to rupture of blood vessels in the eyeball.
Treatment of Acute Deficiency
In this case, therapy is usually aimed at correcting electrolyte balance and acid-base disorders. The most common cause of acute renal failure is the poisoning of the animal. Of course, in this case, measures are taken to remove toxins from the pet's body.
Veterinarians often perform a procedure such as dialysis for cats with acute renal failure. In this case, the abdominal cavity of the animal is cut and a tube with a special liquid is inserted into it. During the time spent in the cat's body, toxins from his body pass into this solution. This procedure is prescribed only for animals with severe electrolyte imbalance in the body.
How to treat chronic deficiency
The acute form of PN can still be cured somehow. But most often in cats, chronic renal failure occurs. Unfortunately, the disease is incurable.Giving an animal with such a pathology special food and medicines, most likely, will have to be done for the rest of his life. There are no specific treatment regimens for this disease. The approach to each animal should be individual in this case.
Treatment in the presence of CRF in animals is symptomatic. In case of anemia, for example, Erythropoietin can be administered to a cat, sodium bicarbonate is used for acidosis, etc. In case of intoxication, drugs are usually administered to pets through a dropper.
If the creatinine in the cat's blood is elevated and he is diagnosed with PN, the owner will definitely have to keep the pet on a special diet prescribed by his veterinarian. Usually, with kidney failure, doctors recommend that the owner of a four-legged pet buy ready-made professional food for him, specially designed for animals with such a disease.
It is almost impossible to cure CRF. But the owner of such a cat is quite capable of alleviating his suffering and improving the quality of his life by relieving severe symptoms. In any case, you should not despair and give up with such a diagnosis. It is only necessary to strictly follow the recommendations of the veterinarian, and then the animal will delight the owners with its presence for many years to come.