With all the advantages of breast milk and its benefits for a growing body, there is still a drawback - the lack of vegetable protein and fiber in its composition, necessary for the full growth and physical development of the child. In this regard, it becomes necessary to introduce complementary foods during breastfeeding when the baby reaches a certain age.
The international he alth system annually develops new programs for the correct introduction of complementary foods, thereby wanting to find the most optimal balance of products necessary for the proper growth of the child's body. Pediatricians insist that even after the introduction of new products, human milk should remain the main food for children. There are no such useful substances, immunoglobulins, as in women's milk, in any product. Therefore, to continue strengthening immunity, young mothers should pay special attention to breastfeeding.
All foods that the child will consume should notcontain s alt, especially vegetable purees. It is also necessary to heat treat them
Basic rules for introducing new products
He althy children are able to move from a single product (women's milk) to a wide diet at home in six months. Thus, by the first year of life, the child can already eat from an adult table.
On the other hand, young mothers who give their children exclusively women's milk after six months of age risk the he alth of their babies. The consequence of such malnutrition is a violation of the physical development of children due to the limitation of useful substances and minerals. Babies who are exclusively breastfed after 8 months do not develop the swallowing reflex of solid foods, which makes it difficult for the digestive system to develop properly in the future. Without adequate iron, children develop anemia.
The introduction of new foods should take place in the cool season, because in hot weather, food poisoning and indigestion of new foods are possible. After each feeding with a new product, it is advisable for the baby to drink it with women's milk. So it will be easier for the baby to adapt to the new rules of nutrition.
Therefore, the introduction of complementary foods should take the lead and attract special attention to new mothers.
When to introduce the first complementary foods?
Depending on the type of feeding the baby, pediatricians call different terms for the introduction of complementary foods. First meal atartificial feeding is advised to administer to newborns when they reach the age of four months. At this point, the child's digestive system is already sufficiently formed, ready to accept more complex food than formula.
Another criterion for early introduction of additional food is the lack of all the necessary vitamins and minerals in infant formula.
The first complementary foods during breastfeeding are advised to give no earlier than the baby is 6 months old. One of the reasons for this is the possibility of developing atopic dermatitis, so there is no need to give other products besides mother's milk.
The following are some of the dangers of introducing complementary foods early:
- After the introduction of additional products, a woman's breast milk production may decrease or stop altogether.
- A child's digestive system, due to its immaturity, is at risk of being infected by pathogenic bacteria contained in foods or liquids.
- Increased risk of food allergies.
- Immaturity of the digestive tract can lead to impaired digestion of adult food and malnutrition.
Problems with delayed introduction of complementary foods:
- Lack of energy and nutrients can lead to stunted growth, child development and malnutrition.
- Breastmilk is not a substitute for iron and zinc, therefore deficiency is possible.
- Insufficient development of chewing skills, taste perception of food.
SoTherefore, breastfeeding should be started on time.
Digestion of children during the introduction of complementary foods
In infants, the secretion of the digestive system is not developed as in adults. Nature intended to initially digest only women's milk, which contains substances that contribute to the proper digestion of food and prepare the child's body to receive adult food. Interrupting this process by introducing complementary foods earlier or later can disrupt the proper functioning of the digestive system.
By the age of six months, the baby's stomach is ready enough to take in dietary fiber, starch, protein and fat from the family's food.
Some products contain low energy density, and the volume of a child's stomach can take no more than 30 ml per kilogram of body, that is, receiving a sufficient amount of low-calorie food, the child does not satisfy his energy needs. Thus, when choosing products, mothers need to consider what energy density and micronutrient content is in a particular product.
How to choose the first product
When a breastfed baby is 6 months old, the mother begins to think about which product to introduce first. Pediatricians advise starting to feed the baby with vegetable puree.
In the recent past, children's doctors recommended choosing fruit puree as the first course. However, nowmost pediatricians criticize this product. The reason for this was studies that revealed a high risk and frequency of cases when the delicate children's gastric mucosa was irritated by the juice contained in fruit purees. Also, many babies then refuse more sugary foods for taste.
Sour-milk products have recently also gained popularity among the options introduced first. However, due to the presence of various proteins in them, many babies react to them with allergies or indigestion.
Semolina porridge, so popular in the past, is now increasingly receding into the background in the list of complementary foods. Previously, with its help, young mothers easily solved the problem of underweight children due to its low cost and availability. However, at present, it is practically not prepared for their children due to the presence of gluten in its composition, which can cause allergies in a child.
When settling on a particular food, the mother needs to carefully monitor how the child reacts to the new food.
How to prepare complementary foods
When it's time to introduce complementary foods, mothers ask themselves the question: buy ready-made products of industrial production or cook on their own at home? Most lean towards the second option.
When a mother cooks on her own, she sees the quality of the products, the food immediately becomes ready to eat, does not contain preservatives and other additives. Although the Ministry of He alth always closely monitors the quality of the produced children'sproducts, but there are different situations in life.
Depending on which first breastfeeding mother decides to introduce, below are simple ways to prepare them.
When preparing vegetable puree, you first need to boil one or more vegetables for a short amount of time (so that all the beneficial properties do not disappear). Then you need to use a blender to grind everything to a homogenized state, that is, puree.
Kefirchik can be made from sour milk. Cottage cheese is easily made from ready-made kefir.
Porridge is better to cook buckwheat or oatmeal. It is advisable to cook it on water, without adding milk. After the cereal is boiled, it will be necessary to grind it with a blender until a homogeneous mass.
Vegetable puree as first feeding
The easiest for the introduction of the first complementary foods and digestion by the child's body are vegetables. Of all vegetables, pumpkin or zucchini are optimal for a child. They have all the beneficial properties found in many vegetable crops, and are also low allergenic. Some mothers begin to give their children vegetable complementary foods at 5 months. It is only necessary to observe the skin of the baby, and also give no more than one teaspoon on the first day. Every day you need to add a spoonful, gradually bringing the volume to 100 g per day.
Vegetable puree is the source of most of the essential vitamins and minerals needed in such a crucial period for a child - a period of rapid development.Eating the necessary daily norm of vegetables, the child strengthens his immunity together with them, receives a boost of energy for full physical and mental development.
Porridge is the first complementary food
The first feeding of porridge is allowed to try to give the child also after six months. First you need to decide which porridge to choose for the child: homemade or industrial. Pediatricians agree that it is better to give factory-made cereals for the first time, as they are prepared using technologies that maintain the optimal balance of useful nutrients and vitamins. Before you take your favorite porridge from the store counter, you need to carefully read the contents of the package. It should be free of preservatives, sugar, vanillin and food additives from category E. You should also pay attention to the period from which it can be introduced into complementary foods for a child.
Cooking such porridge is very convenient. It is enough to dilute a small amount of porridge in infant formula if the child is introduced to the first complementary foods with artificial feeding. A baby who eats mother's milk is prepared an additional dish in the same way, with only some adjustments for breastfeeding. That is, porridge is bred in women's milk, if this is the first complementary food during breastfeeding. Next, you should immediately feed the child with the resulting porridge and do not store it for more than half an hour. In the event that the child does not eat the cooked food, it is necessary to prepare a new porridge food next time.
It is useful to give along with cerealsfruit puree. You can give half a teaspoon of fruit puree for one teaspoon of porridge. However, it is better to combine them already when the mother is convinced that the child is not allergic to any product.
Table of products and terms for the first complementary foods
In order to make it easier for young mothers to navigate the timing of the introduction of new food and its composition, a special feeding table was developed. The recommendations for the introduction of various foods are general, so you should consult your pediatrician before fully following its contents.
It is important to remember that throughout the entire period when complementary foods are introduced, the baby must, as before, be left on priority feeding with human milk. Next, we switch to complementary foods, which are outlined in the table below.
|Chicken yolk||0, 25||0, 5||0, 5||0, 5||0, 5|
The amount in the table is indicated in grams, except for chicken yolk.
Introducing the right complementary foods, you need to consider the following:
- oil (both butter and vegetable) is added directly to cooked food;
- it is advisable to give fish once or twice a week, as it can cause allergies in a child;
- juices should be diluted with water, especially for freshly squeezed homemade juices; if it is not possible to make juice yourself, then it can be purchased atstore, where it is presented in a wide range.
If mothers decide to give complementary foods at 5 months, mothers can also use this table. However, you should carefully monitor the reaction of the baby, perhaps some products, such as chicken yolk, are better to be postponed to a later date.
Conclusions and recommendations
When a mother says to her baby: "Switch to complementary foods!" - this should not mean that she will give him a taste of some adult food, and then from time to time she will feed him with new products. It is important for young mothers to remember that complementary foods should be given systematically so as not to harm the baby's digestive system. You can step back only in those cases when the baby reacts too negatively to new products: either with an allergy or vomiting in general. In such a situation, you should consult your pediatrician as soon as possible.
Introducing complementary foods in the form of porridge, you can not start trying the vegetable menu at the same time. Otherwise, in case of an allergy, it will not be possible to determine which product is not suitable for the child. Gradually introducing complementary foods for months, the mother prepares the child's body for the digestion of adult food, while doing all this in stages, studying the taste preferences of her child and limiting him to foods that are not yet suitable for him at this period.
Having learned how to prepare complementary foods yourself, you can see that there is nothing difficult in this, and it is very easy to move on to a new stage of growing up a baby. The main thing is to remain clearthe sequence of actions and the attentive attitude of the mother to the well-being of the child.