Gingivitis in pregnancy: causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention
Gingivitis in pregnancy: causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention

Video: Gingivitis in pregnancy: causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention

Video: Gingivitis in pregnancy: causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention
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Pregnancy is a difficult stage in a woman's life. Against the background of hormonal changes, immunity decreases. As a result, many chronic diseases become aggravated, resistance to infections worsens. Gingivitis in pregnant women occurs in 50% of cases. In the absence of timely treatment, it can lead to complications. Any infection in a woman's body is a potential threat to the fetus inside the womb.

Description of the disease

Gingivitis is commonly understood as an inflammatory process on the oral mucosa. The disease is accompanied by pain syndrome, increased bleeding of the gums, growth of the gingival papillae and soft tissues. One of its complications is periodontitis - inflammation of the periodontal tissues, threatening tooth loss.

The development of the disease does not depend on the duration of pregnancy and the characteristics of its course. When the first symptoms appear, you should consult a doctor. If the period of pregnancy is short, and external changes have not yetvisible, it is worth notifying the doctor about your situation.

gingivitis treatment
gingivitis treatment

Varieties of the inflammatory process

There are several forms of gingivitis, each with different symptoms:

  1. Catarrhal. There are no specific signs, so the disease often goes unnoticed.
  2. Hypertrophic. The most characteristic for pregnant women, since it occurs against the background of changes in hormonal levels. The gum tissues first swell, then grow, forming false-pathological pockets covering the teeth.
  3. Ulcer-necrotic. It is characterized by the appearance of ulcers on the mucous membrane of the gums and erosion, which leads to the death of tissues. In this variety, gingivitis in pregnant women is dangerous with a high probability of developing periodontitis and inflammation of the jaw bones.
  4. Atrophic. The pathological process is manifested by a decrease in the size of the gums, while the roots of the teeth are exposed. Rarely diagnosed during pregnancy.

The correct definition of the form of the disease allows you to choose the most effective treatment tactics.

Main reasons

Gingivitis is a common disease among pregnant women. The main reason for its development is the vital activity of bacteria, less often viruses and microscopic fungi. They form plaque on the teeth, which can turn into a stone.

Both internal and external factors can contribute to the active reproduction of pathogenic flora:

  1. Hormonal imbalance. Hormones regulate many processes in the female body. ATduring pregnancy, their synthesis is modified.
  2. Oral hygiene. Bacteria actively multiply when favorable conditions are created for them. One of these is nutrition. If a woman neglects oral hygiene, bacteria will have additional food.
  3. Carious lesions of the teeth. Caries is also a product of the vital activity of microbes. If left untreated, the pathological process extends to the gums.
  4. Diet. Avitaminosis among pregnant women is quite common. Vitamins and microelements take part in regulatory functions. With their deficiency, inflammation appears on the mucous membranes of the mouth and gums.

The listed factors can influence the development of the pathological process both individually and in combination. Only a dentist can determine the exact cause of gingivitis. Before visiting a doctor, it is additionally recommended to consult a gynecologist who is in charge of pregnancy.

causes of gingivitis
causes of gingivitis

Clinical picture

There aren't many symptoms of gingivitis in pregnancy. The most common among them is bleeding gums during hygiene procedures. With the progression of the disease, this symptom manifests itself when eating. Gradually, gum tissue grows to such an extent that they begin to cover the crown of the tooth to its middle.

When examining the oral cavity, a strong swelling of the gums is visually noticeable. Women are constantly accompanied by pain, which intensifies after being touched. There is also a characteristicsmell from the mouth, and characteristic deposits on the teeth themselves.

During the course of the disease, it is customary to distinguish 3 degrees of severity. In mild cases, only bleeding gums are noted. There is no characteristic smell from the mouth, and soft tissues cover no more than a third of the crown of the tooth. With moderate severity, bleeding is noted when eating, when careful chewing is required. Inflamed gums cover about half of the crown. Severe pain is indicated by severe pain. The inflamed tissues cover more than half of the crown of the tooth.

pregnancy gingivitis symptoms
pregnancy gingivitis symptoms

Diagnostic Methods

If you suspect gingivitis of a pregnant woman, you should seek help from a periodontist. Diagnosis involves examination of the oral cavity, the study of anamnesis and clinical picture.

Gingivitis symptoms can be confused with other pathologies. Therefore, during the examination, additional tests may be prescribed. For example, a general blood test can distinguish an inflammatory process from blood diseases, and biochemistry - from diabetes.

How to overcome gingivitis during pregnancy? Treatment of the disease involves an integrated approach. Its main goal is to eliminate factors that contribute to the development of the disease and the growth of pathogenic flora. First, the doctor performs a hygienic cleaning of the oral cavity. The next step is a drug effect on the problem to stop inflammation and normalize blood circulation. At the final stage, measures are proposed to prevent relapses. If gingivitis occurs in a complicatedform, surgical removal of hypertrophied tissue is recommended.

examination at the dentist
examination at the dentist

Professional oral hygiene

Treatment of gingivitis in pregnant women begins with a professional oral cleaning. The procedure is carried out in order to eliminate plaque and stones, due to which the condition of the gums improves markedly. Of course, it is better to resort to her help before pregnancy. However, the methods used today are allowed for women in an interesting position. These are laser and air-abrasive cleansing (Air Flow).

As for the issue of ultrasonic cleaning, opinions about it are ambiguous. On the one hand, most doctors do not recommend the procedure during pregnancy and lactation, and on the other hand, a woman undergoes at least 3 ultrasound scans in 9 months to assess the condition of the fetus. Therefore, if possible, it is better to choose laser or air-abrasive cleaning.

Anti-inflammatory therapy

Anti-inflammatory therapy involves rinsing with antiseptic solutions. As a rule, herbal decoctions based on oak bark and sage are used for this purpose, but only if there is no individual intolerance. Rinsing is allowed for the entire period of pregnancy and breastfeeding. The only thing is that herbs must be alternated periodically, taking breaks between courses of treatment.

Pharmaceutical preparations such as "Chlorhexidine" and "Miramistin" are not recommended or strictly prescribed by a doctor in case of urgent need. Research on their impactcomponents on the fetus were not carried out. It is allowed to use "Cholisala", "Solcoseryl" to stop puffiness. The ointment should be applied in a thin layer.

drug "Cholisal" with gingivitis
drug "Cholisal" with gingivitis

Massages and current

Good results are shown by the use of vacuum massage against gingivitis. During the procedure, point suction of the vacuum tube is performed. If necessary, they resort to the help of darsonvalization - a physiotherapeutic effect on the mucous membrane with high-frequency pulsed currents.

In especially serious cases, gingivectomy is performed. This is an operation to remove hypertrophied areas of the gums. It is performed using local anesthesia.

What can you do at home?

Gingivitis during pregnancy is practically not treated with antibiotics, they are resorted to in exceptional cases. The action of such drugs is toxic to the woman and the fetus. Therefore, in addition to an individually tailored course of therapy, doctors sometimes prescribe traditional medicine.

They have a lot of advantages. Natural components do not have a harmful effect on the development of the child, they stop unpleasant symptoms well. However, they can cause allergies. To make sure that there is no unwanted reaction, it is necessary to apply a small amount of the product to the back of the hand in advance. If after 30 minutes there is no rash or redness in this area, you can safely use it against such an ailment as gingivitis in pregnant women.

Treatment at homeprovides the following means:

  1. Oak bark. Raw materials can be purchased at the pharmacy. A small amount of bark should be poured with a glass of boiling water. It is recommended to rinse your mouth with the resulting decoction at room temperature several times a day.
  2. Soda. It is a versatile anti-inflammatory agent. To prepare a rinse solution, add a spoonful of baking soda to a glass of warm water.

Even folk remedies will not have the desired effect if a woman continues to neglect oral hygiene. Doctors recommend brushing your teeth twice a day, and if necessary, additionally use a special floss and rinses. Also, for gum he alth, you will need to adjust the diet in favor of increasing the amount of foods rich in vitamin C and calcium.

oak bark for gingivitis
oak bark for gingivitis

Danger of gingivitis during pregnancy

Gingivitis is a fairly common phenomenon, including among pregnant women. Its manifestations cannot be ignored. In the case of an active inflammatory process, the body weakens, and the work of its immune system switches to fighting the pathogen. As a result, when other foreign agents (for example, the herpes virus) are activated, the protective forces may react untimely or with insufficient force.

How dangerous is gingivitis during pregnancy yet? In the first weeks, the disease can provoke a spontaneous miscarriage. In the last stages, it is dangerously high risk of infection of the fetus. Gingivitis sometimes negatively affects the formation of teeth in a child and their process.mineralization.

Prevention Methods

Prevention of the disease should first of all be aimed at eliminating the possible causes of its occurrence. In addition, doctors give the following recommendations on how to prevent gingivitis in pregnant women:

  1. Perform thorough oral hygiene every day.
  2. Eat he althy and varied. The diet should contain more vitamins, and it is better to refuse flour products.
  3. Periodic check-ups at the dentist. Timely treatment of carious processes and sanitation of the oral cavity can avoid gingivitis and other gum diseases.
prevention of gingivitis
prevention of gingivitis

A woman during pregnancy should monitor not only her he alth, but also the condition of the oral cavity. Gingivitis is considered an unpleasant disease. However, she responds well to therapy. How to treat inflammation of the gums, the doctor should tell the pregnant woman. Advanced cases can negatively affect the development of the fetus.