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Kinship. Who is a close relative
Kinship. Who is a close relative

Family is a small unit of modern society. The values ​​of this institution are necessary for a person, because without them life becomes inferior, meager. In order to correctly name all the numerous members of a large family, you need to understand the relationship.


We bring to your attention material that will help you understand who is a close relative and who is not. If earlier all family ties were highly valued and studied, then in modern society this knowledge has been slightly lost. We will try to put everything on the shelves.

Why do I need to know the types of relationships?

In recent times, families were large, and several different generations of distant and close relatives could live in one house at once. People of the same kind have always been united by kinship. They always had similar values, concerns, needs. Previously, such an expression “looks like an uncle, like three drops of water”, implied that the nephew and uncle are the closest relatives. Today, family values ​​are gradually fading into the background, and nowmost often people know kinship only to blood brothers and sisters, not remembering cousins ​​and second cousins.

How are bonds subdivided?

It is customary to subdivide all family ties into three main groups:

- kinship by blood, that is, the closest relatives;

- in-laws - by marriage;

- unrelated ties.

Kinship links: pages of history

Let's analyze the complex picture of the cunning interweaving of different family ties and turn to the dictionary.

Let's start with the concept of parents. They are usually understood as mother and father. Dad (in colloquial style: dad, dad, tyatka, dad, tyatenko, daddy, dad, dad, dad) - a man in relation to his own children. Mom (mother, mother, mother, mother, mother, mother) is a woman in relation to the same kids.

Children is a term that refers to daughters and sons. A son (son, son, son, son, son) is a boy, youth, man in relation to his own parents. Daughter (daughter, daughter, daughter, daughter, daughter, daughter) - a girl, a girl, a woman relative to her mother and father.

Bastard children (bastards, illegitimate, fatherless, unfamiliar, bastards) are those whose parents were not married before their birth. Bastards in the Middle Ages in Western Europe were called illegitimate children of state persons, for example, a duke, a king. Recently, such an expression has acquired a vulgar and offensive meaning - bastards. In the 19th and 20th centuries, those children who were born before marriage were called chipped. BUTthose born to members of the royal (royal) family and people of non-royal origin were called morganatic. Such offspring did not have the right to succession, they did not recognize the presence of royal blood.

Kinship through generations

Kinship through the generation helps to figure out when men and women will have a new status: grandparents.

next of kin

Grandfather (grandfather, grandfather, grandfather, grandfather, grandfather) - a man in relation to the children of his daughter or son, father of mother or father, grandmother's husband.

who is a close relative

Grandmother (grandmother, grandmother, woman, ba, grandmother) - a woman in relation to the children of her daughter or son, as well as the grandfather's wife. A grandson (granddaughter) is a boy, a young man, a man in relation to his own grandparents, in addition, this is the son of a niece or nephew. Granddaughter (or granddaughter) - a girl, a girl, a woman in relation to her grandmother or grandfather, she can be the daughter of a niece or nephew.

And here are the relatives, the list of which is transferred through several generations. A great-grandfather (great-grandfather) is considered a man in relation to the children of a granddaughter or grandson, this is the father of a grandmother or grandfather.

family ties who relates to whom

Great-grandmother (great-grandmother) is a woman in relation to the children of a granddaughter or grandson, this is the grandmother of any parent (mom or dad).

The great-grandchild will be a boy, a young man, a man in relation to the great-grandmother and great-grandfather, this is the son of a granddaughter or grandson. A great-granddaughter is considered a girl, a girl, a woman in relation togreat-grandparents, granddaughter of a son or daughter.

Kinship through several generations

The ancestor is considered to be the most ancient predecessor of this genus, in addition, any compatriot from all previous generations. An ancestor is the father of a great-great-grandmother or great-great-grandfather, most often any distant ancestor of your family. An ancestor is the mother of a great-great-grandmother or great-great-grandfather, a distant ancestor.

The progenitor is the forefather, that is, the ancestor is the most famous representative of the genus, the genealogy went from him. An ancestor (foremother, ancestor) is called the first legendary representative of the genus, with whom they began to conduct a genealogy.

Proband (proposite) is the person from whom the pedigree is recorded. A descendant (offspring) is a person who descends from an ancestor by birth. Descendants are representatives of future generations. It is also interesting to note that there are such concepts in the genealogy as (great) granddaughter, (great) granddaughter, (great) granddad, (great) grandson, by which they mean ancestors and descendants through k + 1 generations.

Blood relatives in Russian genealogy are considered direct by kinship only in the male line. The principle “from father to son” is descending and perfectly illustrates the irrelevance in a certain period of time of the status of belonging to the nobility of men, since it was not passed on through the female (maternal) line. All descendants and ancestors on the female (maternal) side are not directly related, that is, she becomes the last and only direct descendant in her line. Existssuch a concept as "a misfire of the family", implying the absence of sons in the family. As examples of awareness of direct kinship, we can consider the rules of succession to the throne.

What is indirect blood relationship?

If a brother and sister have the same father and mother, in this case they are considered blood, full-blooded. A boy, a young man, a man is called a brother in relation to other children, if their parents are the same. The eldest is considered the boy in the family, who has the maximum age in relation to other babies of the same father and mother. The youngest will be a boy whose age is minimal compared to the rest. The main condition is the same parents.

A brother who was born before marriage, but recognized by his parents as his child, is called married. A sister is a girl, a girl, a woman in relation to other children (child) who were born by the same parents. The eldest will be a girl (girl, woman), whose age is greater than that of the rest of the offspring. The condition that all children were born to the same parents also works here. The youngest is called the girl (girl, woman) born in the last family. In the old days, a sister was called married, who was born before the marriage between the parents, that is, before the official wedding, but they did not abandon the baby.

kinds of relatives

The closest relatives are twins. Who is called that? They are considered to be the children of one mother, who gave birth to several babies at once in one pregnancy. There are identical twinshave the same sex, as well as an amazing external resemblance. And there are heterozygous, which can be of different sexes. In some cases, twins are understood only as identical (identical) sisters or brothers, and fraternal ones are considered triplets, twins, given their number.

Siblings (siblings) is a term that is used to refer to sisters and brothers (in the relationship between them) who come from the same parents, but are not twins. Incomplete siblings are offspring who have one common parent (mother or father). There is a subdivision of the half-blooded into several groups:

- consanguineous (consanguineous), that is, descended from different mothers, but from the same father;

- one-womb (single-womb), that is, descended from different fathers and one mother.

There is a family connection between half-sisters and brothers. By half means those whose parents are legally married to each other, while they do not have common children. Perhaps, such a variant of tribal relations, that is, such types of relatives as half-sister and brother, from the point of view of social, legal status, is considered non-blood relationship. It is supposed to regard the direct generic relations between the consolidated as peculiar until their parents have common children, that is, their uterine and consanguineous relatives. Through offspring, they will all be consanguineous, since the direct descendants of the half-breeds, as well as the descendants of their uterine, half-sisters and brothers, will be such by definition, they are related to their parents (latergeneration, and directly with the sisters and brothers themselves, as well as among themselves.


blood relatives

The close family ties we have considered are just a small list of those complex interweavings that are determined by the genetic characteristics of each genus.

Let's analyze the connections between cousins. So, if we consider children in families that were created by brothers and sisters, then they will be cousins ​​in relation to each other. A boy (boy, man) is considered a cousin in relation to the children of his aunt or uncle, as the son of an aunt or uncle is called.

Earlier, a paternal cousin, that is, the son of an uncle, was called stryichich, and by mother - uychich. A cousin is a girl, a girl, a woman in relation to the children of an aunt or uncle, this is also the daughter of an aunt or uncle. In the old days, she was affectionately called Stryechka.

Third and fourth cousins

Let's try to figure out who is a second cousin. Children of cousins ​​and brothers in relation to each other are called second cousins. This is the name of the grandson of a sister or brother, as well as a cousin of a mother or father, the son of a great aunt or uncle. A second cousin in the genealogy is called the granddaughter of a sister or brother of a grandmother or grandfather, she is also considered the daughter of a cousin of an aunt or uncle.

Not everyone knows their family ties. Who belongs to whom in the fourth generation? Siblings of common parents, cousins ​​with common grandparents, second cousins ​​with common great-grandparents… You can go on, butthe essence of the connections is obvious. From the fourth generation, they try to indicate the full number of "tribes" that exist between relatives. Such a concept as a cousin (cousin) in practice makes much more sense than a simple designation of a cousin or brother. During the Middle Ages, in the monarchical houses of Europe, in addition to the modern naming along the lateral line, in case of belonging to the same generation, this concept was used to refer to the lateral relatives of the past generation, if the age was approximately equal.

A similar fact is demonstrated in the historical novel by M. Druon "The Damned Kings", where the "cousin" Count Robert of Artois is called the fourth cousin - the English Queen Isabella. Also, this word can often be found in foreign films, although in our time in modern domestic society it does not always take root, since a sister is more acceptable to the subconscious of people (often the word "cousin" is simply omitted). However, both options are correct, so there is no need to condemn those who ignore the word "cousin".

Neighboring Generations

The table of family ties shows the chain between different generations, but what are relatives in neighboring generations called? Ui - that was the name of the mother's brother before. Stryi is the father's sister, and strii is his brother. Vuina is my mother's sister. At present, such designations are not found, they have irrevocably left the Russian language, which in ancient times was much richer. In the old days, a brother's nephew, brother's son, was called a brother. Maybe it's the oversaturation of wordsto designate their relatives and led to a significant simplification.

Today, some concepts are clearly used not for their intended purpose, since few people today understand family ties, their old Russian names. Sister - so in the old days they called a nephew after his sister. A tratanina was called a brother's niece or brother's daughter. Strictly small - this was the name of a cousin in past centuries, that is, a boy (boy, man) in relation to the children of a cousin or brother.

What were the names of the children of blood relatives, as well as cousins ​​and brothers of the parents? Dscherich - that was the name of the nephew on the aunt, and the daughters were called the niece. A second cousin is a girl in relation to the children of a second cousin or second cousin, as well as a second cousin of the mother or father.

Parents (relatives through generations), such as sisters and brothers of grandparents, are an old giant, used to be called a cousin (older brother). There is also an old fellow, that is, a cousin (younger brother). A great aunt is considered to be a great aunt, that is, an aunt of a mother or father, as well as a grandfather's sister. A great-niece is a cousin or granddaughter of a brother or sister. A great-nephew is a cousin or daughter of a niece, as well as a granddaughter of a sister or brother. Want to know who is a close relative? Use the materials that we have selected for you.

After marriage, another line of kinship appears and a new status: spouse or spouse. The second is a man in relation to a woman, withwhom he entered into a legal marriage. The spouse is the woman who married the man. The father of the husband is called the father-in-law, the mother is called the mother-in-law. The wife's mother is the mother-in-law for the husband, and the father is the father-in-law. The matchmaker is the father of the young in relation to the young parents, and vice versa, the father of the young in relation to the young parents. The mother of each spouse is called a matchmaker in relation to the parents of the second member of the family union. Devere (schwager) is the brother of the spouse. His sister is called the sister-in-law. The brother-in-law (schwager) is the brother of the wife. The brother-in-law's son will be a shuric. The sister-in-law is the wife's sister. Primak is a son-in-law who was adopted into the clan of a family by a mother-in-law or father-in-law, leading the same household with them. Son-in-law is the husband of a sister or daughter. The daughter-in-law (daughter-in-law) is considered by the parents of the son to his wife. The brother's wife is a Yatrovka. It is customary to call the wife's sister's husband a brother-in-law, that is, they will be men married to sisters. A cousin's wife is called a bro.

Unrelated relationships

close family ties

Unrelated relationships play an important role in the life of any person. A sweetheart is a girl a man is in love with. She (of course, most often not she, but all those around her who in one way or another try to tease her, sometimes using this word as a humiliation or mockery, although it is not) calls the man who gives her signs of attention and cares. A groom is considered a young man who has the intention of marrying a girl whom he "runs", inviting him to a cafe or to another newfangledmovie show, getting tickets for which is very difficult. A bride is a girl who is about to marry her boyfriend.

Planted - those persons who during the wedding act as the parents of the bride or groom.

A cohabitant is a man who lives with a woman, has a close relationship with her, not officially registered.

A lover is a married man who has a close relationship with a woman, immoral from the point of view of the law. In principle, and in terms of morality, such relations are wrong. A mistress is a woman who has an intimate relationship with a married man, which is also not entirely correct.

Agree, it's not so easy to figure out relationships with close and distant relatives on your own, especially if you delve into the intricacies a few generations ago - into a distant past that is inaccessible to our direct gaze. But then there was no Internet to keep in touch between relatives, people could keep so many statuses in their memory that it’s hard to imagine today. Let after reading this article you will have some set of knowledge about close and distant relatives. It will not be used by you every day, however, for a change, you can address loved ones in a slightly different way, showing your love for knowing traditions. Such an appeal to the older generation will be especially pleasant, as they know the traditions even better and will appreciate your desire, giving you a sweet and generous smile.

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