Many experts note that those children who did not go to kindergarten and were home prepared for school do not always harmoniously fit into the team of first-graders. The problem is that parents do not always have all the necessary knowledge and skills to help their beloved child learn to communicate not only with them, but also with the outside world. Therefore, it is important to pay full attention to the development of the child. In addition to physical development, we must not forget about other aspects.
In the modern world, pedagogy and methods of preschool education are closely related. Therefore, parents should not only be true friends of their baby, but also his first teachers.
This topic is erroneously bypassed by many, which is why classes with kids do not start on time. Therefore, before moving on to the theory and methodology of preschool education, it is worth considering several important stages in the formation of a child's personality. The first years of life, the baby lives in his own world. Hehe is just beginning to recognize a new environment, which causes genuine amazement and fear in him. Gradually, the child learns to interact with objects and people around him. He takes the first step and says the cherished "mom" and "dad".
Preschool age itself is usually divided into three stages:
- Junior. In this case, we are talking about the methodology of preschool education, which should be based on the fact that during this period the child begins to identify himself, his "I" is born. The kid learns to evaluate the attitude of others and easily determines if the parents are happy with him or, conversely, angry. At the same time, it is important to pay attention to activities aimed at developing fine motor skills. Junior preschool age lasts from 3 to 4 years.
- Medium. This period lasts from 4 to 5 years. The child begins to form his own concepts and features of thinking. Gradually, the baby acquires character traits and more actively manifests himself as a person. During this period, the methodology of preschool education should be aimed not only at the development of logic, thinking, but also at the development of more complex motor functions.
- Senior. In this case, we are talking about children aged 5 to 7 years. This period is characterized by enhanced thinking. The child begins to understand that he must perform some household chores (for example, put away toys, help his mother, etc.). At the same time, he must be able to control his emotional state. By this age, the baby is already quite dexterous, but he must continue to develop physically.
Programs and methods of preschool education
The general educational process primarily means certain educational activities that are combined with education and preparation for school. Thus, this is a whole range of activities. Some parents enroll their children in early childhood education, where teachers prepare them for later education.
Thus, the educational methodology of preschool education is fundamental. It consists of four stages. First of all, it is important to pay attention to the formation of the personality of the child. He must learn to build his judgments and assess the situation. The second stage is the organization of the actions of the child. This means that the child must be able to interact with adults and peers. Even before the first trip to school, the child should already have some experience of communication.
In addition, it is important to form the correct self-esteem and motivation in the child. For this, different methods of preschool education and upbringing are used. They can be successfully used at home.
Such a method of teaching, preschool education and upbringing allows you to adjust the behavior of the child. A kid who is preparing to go to school must learn to distinguish bad deeds from good ones and correctly place accents. He must not behave inappropriately in society. It is important to develop respect for his parents.
Thanks to the encouragement, the positive thinking of the child is strengthened. If hefeels positive feelings by doing something good, it will help him to become a good person. It should be borne in mind that until the age of six, children really need praise, so this method is very effective. However, it is important not to develop too much consumerism in the child.
Therefore, it is necessary to use this method of preschool education very carefully. For example, you shouldn't say, "If you brush your teeth today, I'll give you a new toy." It is better to wait for the moment when the baby performs the required action and give him a small present, as if just like that. His brain automatically associates pleasant emotions with brushing his teeth.
Modern methods of upbringing in the field of preschool education, as a rule, exclude such ways of interacting with children. However, in some situations, there is simply no other way to do it. For example, if the child is hyperactive and cannot be controlled by the parents. However, physical punishment should be eliminated entirely.
It is also important to take into account some features of this approach. First of all, you can’t scold a child for the actions that he did a very long time ago. Also, preventive punishment will not lead to anything good. Sometimes, in order to prevent the bad behavior of the baby, parents begin to punish him for something that he has not done at all.
Experts do not recommend the use of such methods, as parents often turn to humiliation. If they do not punish, but insult the child, then this will negatively affect his psyche.
With the development of methods of preschool education, specialists are increasingly using just such methods of interaction with children. In this case, we are talking about the fact that parents talk to the baby, as with an adult, explaining to him the right actions and unacceptable ones.
It is important to take into account the individual characteristics of the child's behavior. The conversation should be conducted in such a way that the conversation is as logical as possible for the child. There is no need to get into complex demagogy and jump from one topic to another. The child must focus and understand what is required of him.
This is one of the so-called blocks of teaching methodology for preschool education. First of all, a personality must be formed from the child, which will be ready for educational activities. Considerable importance should also be given to mental preparation and development of motor skills. It is worth considering these features in more detail.
If parents do not pay enough attention to this aspect, then it will be much more difficult for the child to integrate into the educational process at school. Therefore, it is extremely important that the baby from a very early age be inquisitive and able to think. At the same time, attention is paid to the development of memory, speech and attention.
According to the method of teaching in the field of preschool education, by the age of six, a child should be able to draw. This means that you need to teach the child to at least repeat certain patterns. If he has a penchant for creativity, then you should not limit him. Children who draw, notsketches have great potential, which is recommended to be developed more.
Also, before going to school, the child must learn to color pictures and be able to at least partially repeat the contours. This is important, because in the first years of school, he will deal with spelling.
In addition, parents are encouraged to teach their child to learn small rhymes. Well, if he knows what a retelling is. Therefore, you can read short stories to your child and then ask him to describe what he remembers.
By the age of six, children often count to at least 10. They know where they live, they can give the last name and first name of mom and dad, they understand the seasons. It is worth teaching the baby for months. Some parents even before going to school explain how to tell the time on the clock.
It's easy to see that a lot is required of mom and dad. Parents should teach the child the basics, so that in the first grade not all information is the discovery of a new world for him. To achieve the best results, it is recommended to study the basics of the methodology of early childhood education.
As a rule, mental development involves the use of various educational games. It is worth reading a child of a book as much as possible, and not allowing him to spend all his free time in front of a computer or with a mobile phone in his hands.
Do not forget that at school the child will be engaged not only in mental activity. It must be understood that the first 6-7 years of a child's life is characterized by increased activity and mobility. During this period, it is very important to send him tothe right direction. As a rule, this responsibility lies with the parents. Or you can give the child to the sports section for the smallest, where this mission will be taken on by a specialist.
If we talk about independent work with a child, then in this case it is worth paying attention to several important steps. First of all, the child must understand what recovery is. Experts recommend practicing hardening procedures, prevention of flat feet, etc.
By the age of 6, it is worth teaching a child to swim, run, jump and the simplest games on the sports ground. This will help to build his endurance, agility and speed of reaction. Since children at this age are quite active themselves, it is not difficult to involve them in such activities. For example, parents can start playing sports or outdoor recreational activities with their child. It will also help strengthen family bonding.
It would be useful to buy sports equipment. If the child has a horizontal bar, a jump rope and a ball in the room, then he will be able to do it on his own, without the participation of adults. However, the area of the children's room does not always allow you to place everything you need there. In this case, you can enroll your child in the sports section.
Physical education helps discipline a child. He gets used to the daily routine, begins to understand what a he althy lifestyle is. At the same time, volitional qualities are developed. The child begins to understand that not everything gets so easily. In order to achieve the set goal,great effort must be made. All this has a positive effect on the formation of the personality of the future student.
It is also worth considering that today there may be outdated methods of preschool education. The retraining of specialists has become very relevant, since what worked 50 years ago is not so effective in the age of computer technology. Therefore, it is worth considering several techniques that are successfully used today.
The Maria Montessori System
This program is designed for preschoolers from 3 years old, but modern experts say that it is acceptable even at an earlier age. The main principle of the system is based on the fact that the child is given complete freedom. The child is free to choose what interests him and spend his free time as he wishes.
But that doesn't mean permissiveness. We are talking about the fact that the child only thinks that he is not forced, but he himself is doing something. This means that parents are required to imperceptibly push him to this or that activity. In this case, he will not have the impression that something is being imposed on him.
Although this technique appeared a century ago, it is successfully used today. According to this system, children under 7 years old are not loaded with educational activities. The emphasis is on creativity. This means that the child learns to draw, sing and play musical instruments to a greater extent than learning to write and read. This is believed to achieve the desiredresults, but without physical or moral overstrain for the child.
This technique is aimed at teaching reading and writing. Thanks to this, babies show the first successful results already at the age of 2-3 years. The system is extremely simple. Parents acquire 52 cubes, each of which has letters, numbers, etc. Thanks to this, the baby begins to add words very quickly and imperceptibly. If you additionally hang warehouses on the wall, the child will repeat what he saw. In addition, it has a positive effect on the development of motor skills of the hands. If you regularly practice with cubes, then the result will not be long in coming.
Thus, parents can independently prepare the child for school. If mom and dad devote enough time to raising the baby, then he will sit at the school desk already prepared. If both parents work, then it is recommended to consider the possibility of classes with specialists. In preschool institutions, children receive all the necessary basic knowledge. At the same time, the child will communicate with peers and learn to build friendships.