Family is a social group within which there is a certain connection. It can be blood relationship, marriage or adoption. All its members have a common budget, life, presence and responsibility for each other. There are also social relations between them, which lead to biological ties, legal norms, responsibility, etc. The family is the most important social institution. Many specialists are concerned about this topic, so they are diligently engaged in its research. Further in the article we will consider this definition in more detail, we will find out the functions and goals designated by the state in front of the "cell of society". The classification and characteristics of the main types will also be given below. Consider also the basic elements of the family and the role of the social group in society.
Family is a small social group, interconnected by many factors,for example, marriage. But, unfortunately, in our time, according to statistics, the number of divorces is steadily growing, and Russia has recently taken a leading place in such a list. Previously, it has always been overtaken by the United States. Although, of course, many new alliances are being created. Every year, 2 million marriages are registered in our country.
The Needs of Humanity
The family as a social group and social institution arose a long time ago, before religion, the army, the state. Even the American Abraham Maslow, who diligently studied psychology, created a model that shows what exactly a person desires in the first place. The concept of a family as a social group includes:
1. Sexual and physiological needs.
2. Confidence in the security of existence.
3. Communication with other people.
4. The need to be recognized as a person in society.
Thanks to the combination of these needs, the whole structure of the family is formed. There are several categories. According to the number of children, families are divided into childless, small and large families. There is also a classification according to how long the spouses live together: newlyweds, middle marital age, elderly couple. There are also rural and urban, authoritarian and egalitarian families (according to who is the head of the family).
The family as the most important social institution creates the history of all mankind. Indeed, in ancient timesthere were groups of people who had something in common. By the way, some primitive societies still exist, for example, among the peoples of the North or the tribes of Central Africa, where the institution of marriage is almost the only one that functions stably. There are no specific laws, the police and the court are not responsible. But any such unions, nevertheless, have signs of a family as a social group. For example, the nuclear family, which includes a husband, wife and their children. If there are still relatives - grandmother, grandfather, grandchildren, cousins, etc. - then this will be an extended family. But, unfortunately, at the present time, most people do not really keep in touch with other relatives, so the nuclear family is a social institution that is more common today. Which is very bad, because under any life circumstances one could get help from relatives, if one does not forget that they exist.
Forms of marriage
The concept of a family as a social group includes a traditional view. It all starts with a relationship between a man and a woman, which develops into something more. And it doesn't matter if this union has children or not, they can connect their destinies together. Subsequently, it may also fall apart as a result of a divorce or the death of one of the spouses. Such a family in which a child is raised by one parent is called incomplete in the sociological literature. There is also such a thing as exogamy. It lies in the fact that the choice of a partner is limited to a specific group of people.
After all, for example, it is forbidden to marry according to legal and moral standards for your own brother - a brother or cousin. Some societies prohibit the choice of a future spouse within their clan, tribe. It also happens that an alliance between persons of different races, different strata of society is impossible. More popular in the West is monogamy, which involves marriage between two people of the opposite sex. Although there are nations in which polygamy is preferred (a union where there is more than one person in a marriage). There are even non-standard relationships when several girls and several men unite in a family. And it also happens that one woman has several husbands. This phenomenon is called polyandry. But mostly from non-standard marriages, polygamy is the most popular. Thus, the family, as the most important social institution, must comply with the laws adopted where it was formed.
Prevalence of divorces, their causes
Sociologists have noticed that since 1970 the number of divorces has been increasing, and now they are so common that, according to statistics, half of Russians who form families will certainly divorce after some time. By the way, it has been proven that when there is an economic downturn in the country, the number of divorces also increases, and when the economy is calm, then they become less. Probably, if a person feels the financial stability that an industrial society gives him, then other factors return to normal, he feels satisfaction. Family as a social group and social institution directlydepends on society, its instability. Many countries try to prevent divorce by making it nearly impossible or giving privileges to one spouse. For example, in Italy until the twentieth century. the task of dissolving the marriage was impossible. Only then did the government take pity on those whose unions turned out to be unsuccessful, allowing divorces. But in most countries, if a husband leaves his wife, then he must ensure her life at the level at which she was during the marriage. In this case, the man loses his financial condition. In Russia, people share property. If the children stay with their mother (mostly they do), then the father must provide for them financially. There are many different nuances in the legislation of each country.
In one country or another, the social institution - the family (whose functions are supported by marriage) - acquires special features, its own nature. It has been scientifically proven that not any creature, but only people, can conceive a child at a desirable period for them. After all, many animals breed only at a certain time, and a person has no such restrictions, on any day intimacy between a woman and a man can be realized. Another difference is that a newborn child is in a helpless state for a long time. He needs care and care that his mother can give, and the father, in turn, must provide him economically, namely, give him everything he needs: food, clothes, etc. Back in ancient times, when society was just beginning to develop the mother was caring for the baby,cooked food, took care of her family. At the same time, the father, in turn, provided them with protection and food. A man has always been a hunter, a getter, doing hard work. People of opposite sexes entered into a relationship, offspring developed, children appeared. No one performed the tasks of the other, it was considered wrong, because everyone had their own duties. It is inherent in nature in the human body and is transmitted genetically from generation to generation.
With regard to agriculture and production, we can say that the family plays a very important role here. Thanks to continuity, material resources appeared. All property was transferred to the heir, so the parents were confident in the state of the future of their children, among whom property, statuses, privileges were subsequently distributed and redistributed. This, one might say, is the replacement of some people in a certain place by others, and this chain will never stop. The family is the main social institution that performs this function, determines the advantages of generations, the role of father and mother. After all, everything that the parents had was passed on to the children. This ensured not only the confidence of the heirs in the future, but also the continuation of one or another production. And this is important for the whole society, because without a mechanism that will always replace some people with others, it will not exist. On the other hand, for example, some production important for the city will not be lost, because the heir will continue to take care of it when his father is no longer able to manage the business or dies.
A child receives a stable position when born into a legitimate family. Everything that parents have will be inherited by him, but moreover, this also applies to social status, religion, etc. None of this will be lost, everything will go to the heir. In general, human relations are built in such a way that you can find out the relatives of a particular person, her condition, status. The family is a social institution that shows the position of a person in society, largely due to his origin. Although in the modern world, you can earn some kind of status through your own efforts. For example, a father, working in some firm in an important position, will not be able to pass it on to his son. In order for the latter to receive it, he must achieve it himself. But a lot has been preserved and passing: property (after all, you can transfer an inheritance), the social status of an individual, etc. Each country dictates its own rules, so different nations have different laws that relate to marriage, divorce, heredity. But in general, the family is a social institution of society, which has its own rules and nuances.
Importance of good parenting
From childhood, the mother teaches the child the lessons of social life, he learns from the examples of his parents to live on. It is very important to ensure a good emotional life for your offspring, because in this case there is a direct connection: how he is brought up in the family, so he will be in life. Of course, the character of a person depends on genes, but a great contribution to it is made byfamily education. Much depends on the feelings, the mood that the father or mother gives. It is close people who should prevent the appearance of aggressive qualities in a developing teenager, give him a sense of security, share their emotions.
From birth, a person is formed as a person, because with every passing minute he learns something new, feels something that he has never felt before. All this leaves an imprint on the future character, on individuality. They say that, for example, what kind of relationship between father and mother will be observed by their son, this is how he will treat women in the future, what feelings his parents will give him, and so will he around.
Suicides due to relationships that didn't work out
E. Durkheim researched statistics on suicide. And it has been observed that those who are single or divorced are more likely to commit suicide than those who are married, as well as those who do not have children, although they are married. So, the happier the spouses, the more family members, the less likely they are to attempt suicide. According to statistics, 30% of murders are committed within the family. Sometimes even the social system can upset the balance of the cell of society.
How to save a relationship?
Many spouses make up a kind of plan. The family as a social group in this case receives certain tasks, goals. Together they find ways to achieve them. Spouses must preserve their hearth, provide their children with a good upbringing and living conditions, from childhooddirect the development of the child in the right direction. These foundations of family structure, laid down in ancient generations, still exist. The problems of the family as a social institution should be considered by all relatives. Together they must preserve and pass on to their heirs ideas about the foundations of the structure of society, which so affect the preservation of the family, regardless of political regimes. The family is an intermediary acting between the individual and society. It is she who helps a person to find himself in this world, to realize his qualities, talents, gives him protection, helps to stand out from the crowd, to be individual. This is the most important task of the family. And if she does not do all this, then she will not fulfill her functions. A person who does not have a family will feel his own inferiority more and more with each passing year. At the same time, some negative qualities may appear and develop in him. These are very important nuances that you should pay attention to when raising a child. After all, the formation of his personality begins from the first days.
Developing the personality of each person
Family as a social group and social institution plays an important role. After all, it is she who brings up an individual who can live in society. On the other hand, it protects from external factors, supports in difficult times. A person does not worry about anyone in the world, does not worry, as for his relative. And, without hesitation, helps loved ones. It is in the family that one can find comfort, sympathy, consolation,protection. When this institution collapses, a person loses the support he had before.
Family is a small social group, but it is very important for the whole society. With changes in politics and economics, its structures and functions also change. The emergence of a modernized, urbanized and industrial society has had a huge impact on the modern cell of society. The level of mobility of its members began to grow. In other words, such situations have already become commonplace when one of the family members has to move to another city, where he was offered a job or promotion, leaving his relatives. And since most members of modern society prefer material well-being, success, career growth, the proposed options are no longer considered unacceptable for them. And if this happens, then, from a social point of view, in this case, the internal relations of family members also change, because the social status of one of them, his financial situation, his views, and aspirations change. All this leads to the fact that the bonds that bind relatives gradually become weak, and then disappear altogether.
At the present time, especially for urban residents, it is increasingly difficult to maintain communication between generations. By and large, the structure of the family in modern society is extremely weakened. Basically, all the care of its members is directed only to the care of children, their treatment and education. The rest of the relatives - especially the elderly - are often left behind. The misunderstandings arising from thisand material instability contribute to the destruction of relations between a man and a woman, the emergence of quarrels, and often even lead to separation. The problems of the spiritual closeness of the spouses are important, but the issues that need to be addressed with all family members are paramount. The family as a social group and social institution will function and achieve success only when each of its members understands that his achievements, his merits affect it, and the origin of the individual, his social position plays a very small role. Now personal merits have an undeniable advantage over obligations. After all, with the help of them, a person will decide where to live, what to do. Unfortunately, the nuclear system is more vulnerable and dependent on external factors (diseases, death, monetary losses) than the patriarchal one, in which everyone supports each other, helps, and if some problem happens, everyone can solve it together. Today, all the actions and thoughts of our state and society are aimed at creating conditions for the harmonious development of the family in Russia, at preserving its spiritual value, socio-cultural nature, and ties between relatives.