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Oligo during pregnancy: causes, symptoms, treatment, consequences
Oligo during pregnancy: causes, symptoms, treatment, consequences

Pregnancy is the best time in any girl's life. But not everyone has it going as smoothly as they would like. Someone has pain in the lower abdomen, some women experience discomfort in the legs and much more. It is advisable to consult a doctor at the first occurrence of discomfort.

Such a syndrome as oligohydramnios during pregnancy is a very rare occurrence. There are no more than four cases per one thousand births. But in medical practice, although rare, it occurs. This phenomenon means that the content of the fetal fluid is less than normal, which indicates the presence in the body of a woman of various abnormalities that can pose a threat to the he alth of the expectant mother, as well as interfere with the normal development of the fetus. Let's try to understand in more detail what oligohydramnios means during pregnancy, how it manifests itself and what threat it can pose to a girl carrying a child.

baby in the womb
baby in the womb

General information

Amniotic fluid plays a very important role in the development of the fetus, since they are the source of nutrition for it. It contains vitamins, minerals, macronutrients, hormones, oxygen and other substances that are necessary for the normal growth of the baby. The waste products of the fetus are excreted into the amniotic fluid, and they also protect the baby from external irritants, infections, and other things that may pose a threat to him. As labor approaches, the amniotic sac begins to put pressure on the cervix, causing it to dilate.

It is important to understand that the amount of fetal fluid in different trimesters is not the same. The higher the term, the more it is. This is because as the fetus matures, its needs increase. In the third trimester, the optimal volume of amniotic fluid is from 1000 to 1500 milliliters. Just before the birth, its amount decreases to 600 ml, which is the norm. However, in some cases, in some women, this figure may be much lower, which is a sign of any abnormalities. Depending on the volume of fluid, oligohydramnios during pregnancy is divided into several degrees of complexity. In medical practice, there were even cases when they practically did not exist at all, and women had to terminate their pregnancy.

pregnant girl on bed
pregnant girl on bed


Oligo during pregnancy, depending on the severity, is divided into two types:

  • moderate;
  • expressed.

In the first case, the quantity deviationamniotic fluid from the norm is insignificant and does not pose any threat to the development of the fetus. To normalize the condition of a pregnant woman, doctors recommend adhering to a proper diet, eating foods rich in vitamins and nutrients. It is also necessary to periodically be examined by a doctor. As practice shows, moderate oligohydramnios during pregnancy poses practically no threat to the fetus, so children are born he althy and strong, without any deviations.

The second case is more serious, so expectant mothers are placed in a hospital for treatment, and a course of drug therapy is also prescribed. If no treatment is taken, this can lead to deformation of the baby's skeletal system, the development of various pathologies, oxygen starvation, which negatively affects the functioning of the central nervous system of the fetus, and also leads to a lag in physical and mental development.

pregnant woman drinks water
pregnant woman drinks water

It is worth noting that if moderate oligohydramnios during pregnancy practically does not affect childbirth, then in most cases they are impossible without a caesarean section.

Clinical manifestations

There are no pronounced signs of pathology, so it is quite difficult to determine it in time.

The main symptoms of oligohydramnios during pregnancy can be as follows:

  • weakness;
  • dry mouth;
  • nausea;
  • periodic bouts of aching abdominal pain.

Regardingthe last symptom, it especially makes itself felt when the fetus begins to move. The thing is that the activity of the baby in the twelfth week of gestation increases very much. If the amount of fetal water is less than normal, then the shock-absorbing functions decrease, as a result of which the expectant mother experiences severe pain.

It is impossible to determine oligohydramnios during pregnancy without an examination by a gynecologist, so if you notice at least some of the clinical manifestations listed above, you should contact a gynecologist as soon as possible for examination and ultrasound examination. Only it can confirm the presence of a problem, since with a low volume of fetal fluid, the uterus decreases in size, as a result of which the fetus is limited in movement. Ultrasound allows not only to detect oligohydramnios, but also to determine the severity and general condition of the baby.

If the diagnosis is confirmed, then it is critical to start timely treatment here, since insufficient volume of fetal fluid can lead to spontaneous abortion or early labor, which is very long and difficult.

Main causes of pathology

To date, doctors have not been able to fully understand the causes of oligohydramnios during pregnancy.

But the main prerequisites for this could be:

  1. The presence of severe pathologies and abnormalities in the development of the baby, especially related to the kidneys, as well as various anomalies inherited from the mother. In this case, doctors most often perform an abortion.
  2. Deviations in the development of the fetal bladderor violation of its secretory functions.
  3. High blood pressure throughout gestation.
  4. Various diseases of bacterial etiology that have not been completely cured.
  5. Multiple pregnancy, in which blood circulation is uneven between several fetuses.
  6. Violation of metabolic processes occurring in a woman's body.
  7. Overcarrying the fetus.

These are the most common causes of oligohydramnios found in medical practice. However, as mentioned earlier, scientists have not yet fully understood this phenomenon, so a variety of factors may be behind the problem.

causes of oligohydramnios
causes of oligohydramnios

Diagnostic Methods

Doctors can only make an accurate diagnosis based on the results of an ultrasound examination, during which medical staff are interested in the amniotic fluid index, measured in four places, and the resulting numbers are divided by 4. If the IAI is in the range of 5 to 8 cm, then the pregnancy proceeds normally and there are no deviations from the norm. With an index of less than two centimeters, there is severe oligohydramnios, so the woman needs immediate hospitalization.

Basic Therapies

If you have been diagnosed with oligohydramnios during pregnancy, treatment should be exclusively outpatient.

However, for this, doctors first need to determine the cause of the development of the pathology, so patients are prescribed:

  • ultrasonicstudy;
  • doppler;
  • tests and smears for infectious and venereal diseases;
  • cardiotocography.

The treatment program is selected on an individual basis, depending on the clinical picture of the expectant mother and certain characteristics of her body. It may include a variety of activities. If a girl has a metabolic failure and obesity, then medications are prescribed, and an optimal diet is selected.

Oligo in late pregnancy requires a comprehensive approach to treatment. The therapy program includes taking vitamin preparations, as well as drugs that normalize metabolic processes in the body and are aimed at combating the underlying disease that has served to develop the pathology. When oligohydramnios is not too severe, outpatient treatment is allowed. But at the same time, the expectant mother should minimize the amount of physical activity and be regularly examined by a doctor.

If oligohydramnios during pregnancy (treatment must be constantly adjusted by a specialized specialist) occurs in a very severe form that threatens the life of the fetus, then doctors may raise the issue of early birth. However, this is permissible only if the timing of pregnancy allows. Otherwise, as with the detection of malformations of the infant at an early stage of its bearing, an abortion is prescribed.

how to treat malnutrition
how to treat malnutrition

With aging of the epithelium of the placenta, which led to the development of fetoplacental insufficiency, Actovegin is prescribed,"Kurantil" and other drugs with a similar effect. Treatment in this case is carried out exclusively on an outpatient basis. If against this background oxygen starvation of the fetus was caused, then a caesarean section is used regardless of the trimester.

How does oligohydramnios affect the well-being of pregnant women?

Every girl shows up differently. The consequences of oligohydramnios during pregnancy can be extremely negative for a woman's condition. Pathology not only complicates the process of bearing a fetus, but can also cause its premature termination. In addition, expectant mothers will constantly experience weakness and malaise, and childbirth is very difficult, since the low amount of amniotic fluid in the fetal bladder will prevent the uterus from opening normally. Thus, a woman will not be able to give birth without special drugs that artificially stimulate contractions.

The impact of pathology on the fetus

Every woman is interested in the question of what threatens oligohydramnios during pregnancy for her unborn child. And this is not surprising, because every mother worries about her child, even if it has not yet been born. As mentioned at the beginning of the article, the amniotic fluid provides the fetus with oxygen and all the nutrients, and is also responsible for removing the baby's waste products. Its insufficiency negatively affects the normal growth and development of the child. If the pathology has made itself felt in the early stages of pregnancy, then the fetus may experience various abnormalities, for example, clubfoot, deformity of the skull,dislocations of the joints and so on. This is due to the fact that the fetal bladder ceases to perform the functions assigned to it.

effects of oligohydramnios
effects of oligohydramnios

If oligohydramnios during pregnancy (reviews of women giving birth fully confirm this) proceeds in a not too severe form, then children are born completely he althy without any significant complications. The only negative consequence will be a slowdown in physical development, but this does not affect the normal functioning of the child at all. In addition, these children often have weak immunity, so they get sick very often throughout their lives.

Prevention measures

Oligo during pregnancy can be prevented by following certain preventive measures. The expectant mother should take care of herself by minimizing physical activity. It is recommended to walk in the fresh air as often as possible, eat a balanced diet, trying not to overeat too much.

You need to visit your doctor regularly for tests and examinations. This is very important, because any changes in the body can help to timely detect the presence of any problems that can lead to oligohydramnios in the future. If treatment is started on time, the development of pathology can be prevented.

A few words about nutrition

Treatment of oligohydramnios is impossible without a woman following a special diet that will help in the treatment of this pathology. In the daily diet of a woman, the amount of s alt consumed should be minimized, becauseit retains fluid. It is best to cook food without it at all, and add a little s alt to it already in the process of eating. You should also give up any harmful and hard to digest foods, and try to eat as many fresh or steamed fruits and vegetables as possible. With low water, watermelons, apples, dried apricots, dates and walnuts are very useful. You can also use fermented milk products, herbal teas brewed on wild rose or chokeberry. When it comes to cooking food, it's best to skip frying and instead steam or boil. This will not only save more vitamins in food, but also make it more useful.

oligohydramnios during pregnancy
oligohydramnios during pregnancy

In closing

Oligo during pregnancy (what to do with it was discussed in this article) is a very serious pathology that can pose a threat to the fetus. However, it appears extremely rarely, so you don’t have to worry too much about it. According to medical statistics, no more than 4 percent of pregnant women face this problem. However, in order to minimize the risks of developing oligohydramnios, it is recommended to regularly check with a gynecologist throughout the entire period of gestation. If the problem is detected in time, then getting rid of it will not be difficult without any consequences for the fetus. If, nevertheless, you have been diagnosed with oligohydramnios, then you should not immediately panic, since excessive excitement will negatively affect the child and only aggravate the situation. Register for pregnant womenyour hospital and doctors will do whatever it takes. Modern medicine is at a high level, so absolutely everything is treatable.

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