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How does childbirth happen? Pregnancy and childbirth
How does childbirth happen? Pregnancy and childbirth
Anonim

The main life task of every woman is to endure and give birth to a he althy baby. In this article, I would like to tell expectant mothers how childbirth occurs. What to expect from the process of labor activity, what difficulties may arise here - this is what I want to talk about now.

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Preparation

Pregnancy and childbirth is the most important period in the life of every woman. And I must say that even the birth itself depends on how the future mother's pregnancy proceeded. Things to keep in mind while carrying a baby?

  1. Proper nutrition. Expectant mother throughout the entire period of pregnancy should eat right. You should try to exclude fried and fatty foods to the maximum, preferring cereals, vegetables and fruits. It is also important not to eat junk food, such as fast food, chips, crackers, soda. After all, everything that the mother eats, the baby also gets.
  2. Bad habits. During pregnancy, the mother should completely give up bad habits, such as drinking alcohol (even in small doses), smoking.
  3. Daily routine. The expectant mother should walk a lot, often be in the fresh air. You need to remember:pregnant does not mean sick. Moderate physical activity never hurt anyone.
  4. Useful emotions. It is good if a pregnant woman experiences as many positive emotions as possible. This will have a great effect not only on her he alth, but also on the condition of her unborn child.
  5. A visit to the doctor. Every pregnant woman should register on time and periodically undergo scheduled examinations. So you can prevent a lot of unpleasant situations related to the he alth of the crumbs.
  6. Courses. Every mother-to-be should remember that she must take birth preparation courses. And although this is not yet a mandatory procedure, it is still better to find out in advance how childbirth occurs, what to expect and what to fear during labor.

And this is not a complete list of the most important things for a future mother. However, by observing at least these rules during pregnancy, you can help yourself and your baby very well.

What happens to the body before childbirth?

Studying the topic "Pregnancy and childbirth", I would like to talk a little about what happens to the female body in the last weeks of bearing a baby. So, the level of progesterone, the hormone active throughout pregnancy, begins to fall. At this time, a hormone such as oxytocin begins to be gradually produced. It is he who is responsible for the onset of labor and the labor activity of a woman. Endocrine glands come into play, which increase the sensitivity of the uterus to oxytocin. The time comes, and the lady begins to feel the first harbingers of childbirth -contractions.

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Harbingers

Understanding how childbirth occurs, it is also necessary to say that there are also harbingers of labor activity. These are well-known fights. It is worth saying that they can also be false or, as they are also called, training. Their main differences: short duration, as well as mild pain. However, even a woman who has never given birth can recognize real grips. The first contractions will not last long, about 10 seconds each, the interval will also be quite large - from 5 to 10 minutes. This is still the time when a woman can be at home, she does not need to go to the hospital yet.

Period one. Disclosure

Understanding how childbirth occurs, it must be said that they are divided into three main stages. The first of these, cervical dilatation, is the longest.

  • For primiparas, it can stretch for 10-13 hours.
  • In multiparous women - most often for 6-8 hours.

At this time, contractions gradually increase, pain increases, the duration between contractions decreases. It is worth saying that with each time the cervix is ​​​​opening more and more. This will happen until the uterus, its cervix and the vagina itself form a single corridor along which the baby will move.

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Difficulties of the first period

What difficulties may arise in this period? So, the most common case is a weak labor activity of a woman. This can be expressed in the followingindicators:

  1. The amniotic sac burst, and contractions do not start for a long time (this threatens the baby with oxygen starvation).
  2. Attenuation of contractions - their intensity falls, the intervals between them decrease. However, if the amniotic sac has not burst yet, it's okay, then nature gives the woman a break.

If a woman's amniotic sac bursts and contractions don't start, labor induction will be needed.

Second period. Struggling

The contractions will testify that labor activity is moving into its second stage - attempts. If they last quite a long time, up to 1 minute, and the interval between them is also about 1 minute, this means that the woman will see her baby very soon. The attempts themselves arise involuntarily, regardless of the desire of the woman. However, the expectant mother can manage them (if necessary, help, strengthen, if necessary, hold). It is definitely worth saying that during attempts, a woman in labor should carefully listen to doctors. After all, only they can competently manage labor activity, advising a woman to act in a certain way.

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Choose a pose

If a woman is having a normal birth, she can try to choose a position on her own in which it will be easiest for her to give birth. Many doctors say that giving birth lying down is unnatural. Therefore, during labor, the expectant mother should carefully listen to her body and choose the right position.

  1. Squattingleaning on the hands (this is how they give birth in Mexico and Tibet).
  2. Holding on the bar while standing (practiced by some African tribes).
  3. Sitting on my husband's lap (European countries).
  4. Leaning on the assistant's back, sitting (practiced in Russia and some European countries).
  5. Leaning on knees and holding special levers (Asian countries).

In any case, most clinics today offer a woman to choose her own position for childbirth, and this is a huge breakthrough in domestic medicine.

Dangers of the second period

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What is it - a difficult birth? So, it is worth saying that the labor activity that occurs with certain complications is called severe, which include:

  1. Wrapping the baby with the umbilical cord (there is a danger that during childbirth it will tighten around the baby's neck).
  2. Helping the mother during the passage of the head (often doctors cut the perineum when the baby cannot pass the last stage of the birth canal on its own).
  3. Wrong baby position. Proper birth is when the baby goes head first. However, there is a breech presentation of the child. In this case, the maximum participation of doctors in the labor activity of a woman is important.
  4. Behavior of the baby after childbirth. Everyone knows that a baby should scream as soon as it is born. This will mean that his lungs have opened and he is breathing. However, sometimes the child needs help. The competent actions of doctors are very important here.

Period Three: Delivery of the placenta

If a woman has the rightchildbirth, she must know that after the baby is born, childbirth does not end. There is another important stage - the birth of the placenta or child's place. It is worth saying that this should happen soon after the birth of the baby. To do this, the mother may be asked to push again. An excellent stimulation of the birth of the placenta is the stimulation of the nipples. To do this, it is enough to attach a newborn baby to the breast. It is important to say that during the birth of the placenta, some blood may stand out. You shouldn't be afraid of it, it should be so. And only after the birth of a child's place, the uterus will shrink sharply, the vessels will shrink, the bleeding will stop.

Dangers of the third period

The main danger of the last stage of labor: the placenta does not pass. The maximum time that can be given to the body of a lady: 40 minutes. After that, the woman will need to provide medical assistance. Indeed, after this period, the uterus may begin to close. However, at this time it is strictly forbidden to pull the umbilical cord, such behavior can cause bleeding. It is necessary to try to stimulate the appearance of a child's place by attaching the child to the chest. If this does not help, doctors will come to work, who, with the help of various medications, will do everything that is necessary.

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Difficult delivery

Often, women may be interested in the question: "What is it, a difficult birth?" So, it is worth mentioning that this term is often used even for normal childbirth, which was somewhat delayed, or during which the lady experienced toopainful sensations. However, it is not. According to medicine, a difficult birth is:

  1. Induced childbirth, i.e. artificial induction of labor activity. This is necessary if the mother carried the child for longer than the 41st week, if the mother and baby have an Rhesus conflict, if the amniotic sac burst prematurely, etc.
  2. Accelerated labor, when the baby comes out quickly, and the woman's body simply does not have time to prepare for attempts.
  3. Complications. That is, when some problems are found during labor. It can be an entanglement of the umbilical cord of the baby's neck, placental abruption, placenta previa, fetal suffocation, significant blood loss, ruptures of various degrees.
  4. Early birth, when a woman's labor activity occurs much earlier than the due date. It is also fraught with various kinds of complications.
  5. Wrong baby position. This is also a difficult birth, when the baby does not go head first, but somewhat differently (sideways, legs forward).

Home birth

It is worth saying that today they are actively practicing childbirth at home. Reviews about this, of course, are mixed (especially from doctors). A huge plus is that a woman will give birth in her usual environment, she will not have the stress associated with changing her place of residence. However, there are many more downsides to this scenario. First of all, it must be said that in this case it is necessary to call not only a midwife, but also a doctor who can help if necessary. It is also important to say thata huge disadvantage of such childbirth is that often the doctor does not have the necessary equipment at hand, which can only be located within the walls of a medical institution (an intensive care room for both mother and baby). However, if everything is in order with the woman, the pregnancy proceeded without complications, and there is a qualified doctor nearby, you can safely try to give birth in your own walls.

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Water birth

If a woman is not having her first pregnancy (second birth), she may want to try to somehow alleviate the pain she experiences during labor (she already knows what she has to go through, unlike primiparas). In this case, you can try to give birth to a baby in the water. It is worth saying that water itself perfectly relieves pain and helps mom relax even in the most difficult periods of labor. Doctors recommend that women, if possible, stay in the water during contractions. However, at the same time, it should be equal to the woman's body temperature - 37 °. If the water is warmer, there is a risk that the contractions will subside (this is harmful to labor in general), but if it is cooler, the woman may simply freeze. As for the process of attempts, it is worth saying that ladies who give birth in water go through this stage much faster. However, during such childbirth, a doctor (not just a midwife) must also be present. After giving birth, the woman should lie down, attach the baby to her breast and rest.

Postpartum

Having considered how the birth of primiparas and all other women in labor goes, you also need a couplewords to say that no less important is also the postpartum period. Approximately two hours after labor, a woman must be under the close attention of doctors (because at this time life-threatening bleeding and other problems may occur). After giving birth, the baby must be immediately attached to the breast, this is very important. After that, the baby is weighed and measured for its height, then placed near the mother. After that, the work of the doctors who delivered the woman's birth ends. Two hours later, the lady is transferred to the postpartum ward, where she is under observation for some time (along with the newborn). If everything is fine, the mother and child will be discharged in three days. Otherwise, their stay in the walls of a medical institution may be delayed. During this period, a woman is taught the main rules for caring for a baby.

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