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The structure of the saddle and bridle for a horse: types and features

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The structure of the saddle and bridle for a horse: types and features
The structure of the saddle and bridle for a horse: types and features

The most important elements of equestrian equipment are saddle and bridle. During training, competition or work, horses are subjected to enormous stress. And therefore, such animals, of course, need the highest quality ammunition.

Modern saddles and bridles are designed in such a way that they allow you to control the horse without causing him much discomfort. It is believed that such accessories for a horse should be made to order or carefully selected individually. The structure of the saddle and the size of the bridle must exactly match the physiological characteristics of the body and head of the animal.

Saddle on a horse


A saddle is an equestrian equipment designed for riding a horse or transporting goods. In ancient times, such devices were an ordinary blanket held by straps. Modern saddles are complex and often very expensive.

The main purpose of the bridle is to control the horse. Its main parts are holding straps for various purposes and a bit (most oftenmetal). Such ammunition is put on the horse's head.

There are several varieties of both saddles and bridles, each designed for use on special occasions. The design of both of these horse accessories, as already mentioned, are quite complex.

Basic elements of the saddle

The saddle and bridle for horses consist of quite a large number of elements for different purposes. The first attribute, for example, has in its construction:

  • tree tree;

  • bows and seat;

  • stirrups;

  • pillows;

  • travel;

  • fender;

  • grips;

  • girths;

  • martingales;

  • undercoat;

  • s alt trap.

The shape and size of some of these elements may vary depending on the purpose of the saddle. The structure of the ammunition of this variety should be such that when using it while riding, neither the rider nor the horse itself would experience any discomfort.

horse saddle design

Basic elements

Saddles for horses are made in our time on a solid frame called a tree. The shape and dimensions depend on the parameters and configuration of this particular element. Different materials can be used for the manufacture of trees in modern workshops. But most saddle frames are made of wood or strong, flexible plastic.

At the top of the saddle for any purposehas a concave shape. This is necessary in order for the rider to sit comfortably on the horse. The curved edges of the saddle are called bows. The height of different types of similar ammunition, they may not be the same. The place where the rider sits while riding, that is, the lowest plane of the concave part of the saddle, is called the seat.

Stirrups are special metal brackets on which the rider leans with his feet while riding. This element also has another purpose. The rider leans on the stirrup with his foot when landing on the horse.

The saddle is fixed on the back of the animal using straps. The tree, bows and seat can be called the main elements in the structure of a saddle for a horse. But such ammunition also has another very important part of the design - fenders. When riding a horse for a long time, riders, unfortunately, very often rub their inner surface of their legs. In order to prevent such a nuisance, fenders are used. In another way, these elements are called wings. They are located on the sides of the saddle below the seat and bow. Their thickened arcuate edge forms a pillow.

Properly selected ammunition, among other things, should never touch the horse's spine. To exclude this possibility, a pillow is provided in the structure of the saddle. Such rollers are stuffed at the edges of the wings with wool or synthetic materials.

Types of belts

There are several such elements in the design of the saddle. The belts can be designed both for attaching equipment of this variety to the horse itself, and forfixing its individual parts. A priruga, for example, is a belt located under the wings of a saddle. The girth, in turn, is designed to prevent the harness from slipping.

Another type of straps included in the design of the saddle are putlischa. These elements are threaded through special rings called shnellers. Putlischa are located on both sides of the saddle and are designed for attaching stirrups to it.

Additional items

The design of the modern saddle was designed in such a way that the horse experienced a minimum of discomfort when riding. However, even the most expensive and high-quality accessories of this variety can, unfortunately, rub the animal's back. To prevent this from happening, the saddles are supplemented, among other things, with a saddle pad. In another way, this element is called a sweatshirt. Whatever the structure of the saddle - Turkish, Russian Cossack, universal, etc., in most cases, a saddle pad is included in its design.

It is a sweatshirt a small blanket or rug, a kind of padding for the horse's back. The saddle on the horse is put on over the saddle pad. Modern sweatshirts can be made, among other things, from special synthetic gel materials.

It is also quite common for horse saddles to include a special type of strap called a martingale. The nature of some horses can be quite obstinate. While riding, such horses often lift their heads strongly. This, in turn, makes it much more difficult to control the knight.

If the horse throws his head too far back, he can even injure the rider and throw him to the ground. To prevent this from happening, martingale is used. The belt of this variety is passed between the front legs of the animal and is attached to the girths and headband of the horse's bridle.

What are saddles

There are many varieties of such horse ammunition. For example, saddles can be used for riding horses:

  • line drill with steel tree;

  • Cossack with a special stance designed to ride on straight legs;

  • female, allowing legs to be placed on one side of the horse;

  • jumping with extended wings.

The most common type of horse saddles are universal. Such ammunition has a classic design and can be used for walking, hunting, training, sports, etc.

Dressage saddles are also very popular with horse lovers. Their structure has the peculiarity that they are equipped with long narrow wings. In such a saddle, the rider can fully straighten his legs for better contact with the animal. The padding on this outfit has been reduced. Therefore, the rider has the ability to control the horse with one body.

How saddles are made

There are also saddles and a fairly original design. For example, in such an accessory, the bows can be raised so high that it looks like an armchair. In ancient times, for example, they had just suchstructure Turkish saddles, Mauritanian, Arabic. Today, only cowboy and Australian ammunition of this type differs in this design.

What are the dimensions of the saddle

Many companies produce such equipment nowadays. In almost every country today there are domestic most popular breeds of horses. Therefore, firms from different countries usually produce saddles of different sizes. For example, similar accessories:

  • from Kieffer have a tree size 32 (later the frame is adjusted to the back of a particular horse);

  • from Stubben - from 27 to 32.

There is also a standard classification of saddle sizes 1, 2, 3, 4 - respectively, narrow, medium, medium-wide and wide. Most foreign firms in the marking of such ammunition to indicate the size, therefore, use 4 digits. And most often these are the numbers 31, 32, 33, 34. In this case, only two companies are limited to one digit - Centaur and Pfiff. Marking for products from these manufacturers is under one of the wings.

Some brands of saddles may include, among other things, interchangeable tree forks, painted in different colors, each of which corresponds to a certain size:

  • N - narrow;

  • NN - medium narrow;

  • M - medium;

  • W - wide;

  • MW - medium wide;

  • EW - extra-wide.


A saddle, a building havingrather complex, of course, is perhaps the main part of the horse's ammunition, both sports and working. However, an accessory of a slightly different variety can be worn on the back of these animals. During training, competition, or just when moving for a long time at high speed, the horse, like any other living creature, begins to sweat a lot. After a stop, due to a sharp cooling of the body, the horse, of course, can simply catch a cold. To prevent this from happening, a blanket is often put on a horse after significant loads. This is the name given to a special type of coverlet made of absorbent fabric.

Bridle design elements

The structure of the saddle for a horse is such that during competitions or work it does not get too tired, suffers less from prolonged contact of a heavy rider with the back and does not experience discomfort. The bridle, of course, should also have the most convenient design for the horse.

Outwardly, such horse ammunition resembles an ordinary dog ​​muzzle. The main element of the bridle are metal or plastic bits. This part is located in the horse's mouth. It is the bit that allows you to turn the animal during movement, stop it or increase the speed of movement.

The structural elements of the horse bridle are also belts that are components of the head:

  • judicial;

  • forehead;

  • reason;

  • chin;

  • designed to hold the bit;

  • fixing capsule.

The bridle is designed to hold the bridle on the horse's head. At the same time, a part that carries mainly an aesthetic load is called a headband. This element can be decorated with braid, ribbons, stones, rhinestones. After all, both the saddle and the bridle on a horse should not only sit comfortably, but also look good. This is especially important for horses taking part in races with a large number of spectators.

The structure of the bridle for a horse

Chin straps in bridle construction have been widely used in the past. Their main purpose was once the stabilization of the product on the head of the animal. In the new type of bridles, the chinstrap is almost never present.

What is a primer

This mechanism plays a very important role in the design of the bridle. Its main purpose is to fix the bit in the horse's mouth. Such an element, of course, gives the animal certain inconvenience. The bit prevents the horse from swallowing saliva, moving his tongue, and chewing. Therefore, the horse, of course, tries to spit them out of its mouth at the first opportunity. To prevent this, a primer is used in the design of the bridle. This strap is located on the nose of the animal.


This detail, along with the bit, is the main control element in the design of the bridle. The reins are two straps of the same length. At one end they are attached to the bits. Their other ends are held in the hands of the rider.

Bridle for a horse


Straps, bits and reins are the basic elements in the design and construction of bridles. Saddles for these animals can, as we found out, be used in different ways. The same applies, of course, to the bridles. Products of this type are:

  • mouthpiece;

  • designed for walking and jogging;

  • western designs;

  • a la cowboy;

  • snaffle;

  • varieties of hackamore.

The most common type of such ammunition is the snaffle. Standard bits in such bridles change to tenzel. Also, a design feature of this type of equipment is that sometimes it may not use a primer.

Mouthpiece bridles are, in fact, one of the varieties of snaffle bridles. Their difference lies primarily in the fact that they have in their design additional attachments for one more reins and bits.

Bridle with bits

A feature of bridles for walking is the simplicity of design. A bit in this type of ammunition can be pulled out of the horse's mouth in just a couple of seconds. In combination with a good saddle, such equipment can actually be very comfortable, including for the rider. The design of such a product allows, for example, to quickly water the animal after a long transition.

Cowboy bridles are different in that they do not have a snaffle, capsule and mouthpiece. Also in equipment of this type slots are provided (one longor two short ones) for the ears of the animal.

Hackamore is a bridle that also does not have a bit in its design. When using such an accessory, the horse is controlled by influencing the chin and the back of the head. Bridles of this type are usually worn on horses with bad teeth.

What can be made of

On the structure of the saddle and bridle for a horse, as well as their size, when choosing, pay attention, of course, it is necessary. But no less important are the materials used to make such equipment.

In order to choose a good bridle, first of all, it is necessary to measure the horse's head. The color of such horse accessories may be different. Most often, bridles are selected for horses that contrast with the shade of their coat. In this case, a similar accessory on the horse's head looks especially impressive.

Also, when choosing a bridle, of course, pay attention to its strength. This parameter, in turn, depends on what material the accessory is made of. In this regard, there are mainly two types of bridles on sale today - made of synthetics and leather. Products of the first type are inexpensive, but at the same time they do not look too solid. The price of leather bridles is high. However, they look on horseback, of course, very presentable.

What is a h alter

The main purpose of the bridles, therefore, is to control the horse during its movement. However, there is a special kind of such ammunition, used at a time when the animalcosts. Such bridles have a simplified design and are called h alters. Accessories of this type are not equipped with bits.

Saddle and bridle for a horse

Such equipment can be very useful, for example, when a horse needs to be bathed. Also, h alters are used in the vaccination of horses, their treatment, scheduled examinations. They also put on ammunition of this variety on animals when they want to drive them over a short distance, for example, from one stall to another or to a pasture.

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