Psychologists have proven that play activity is an integral component of the harmonious all-round development of preschool children. This is due to the age-related features of the development of mental processes in children. With the help of this type of activity, preschoolers learn about the world around them, learn communication and interaction with peers, and adapt in society. One of the most effective types of play activity in kindergarten is theater. In such activities, preschoolers show creative activity, realize their potential, develop abilities. Therefore, it is so important to hold theatrical games in preschool educational institutions. Such activities are organized in a preschool institution in a variety of forms. About what types of theaters are in kindergarten and how to organize them correctly, we will consider in this material. In addition, we will share interesting ideas for making attributes and inventory for such work.
The impact of theatrical play on the development of a preschooler
It is impossible to overestimate the beneficial impact of theatrical games on the development of preschool children. Such activities contribute to:
- learning and consolidating educational material by children;
- development of speech and fine motor skills;
- building communication skills;
- development of creative abilities, revealing the talents of kids;
- shaping the ability to interact with others;
- to the formation of the sensitive-emotional sphere;
- the emergence of a steady interest in fiction, books;
- education of aesthetic taste;
- development of such personal qualities as purposefulness, will, initiative and others.
Types of theaters in the preschool educational institution
Thus, the organization of theatrical activities in preschool education solves a number of educational and educational goals. In addition, it contributes to the implementation of the requirements of the state standard, because thanks to this form of pedagogical work, children learn to independently put forward ideas, argue, show initiative and creativity.
What types of theaters can be organized in kindergarten? In the pedagogical literature, it is proposed to carry out such activities with preschoolers as:
- table theatre;
- living doll theater.
In turn, each of these species is divided into subspecies. More abouteach of them will be described below.
Stand theater is any surface on which figurines-characters and decorations are attached. This type includes:
- Theater on flannelgraph (a board covered with cloth). To organize this type of activity, you will need an industrial or self-made flannelograph and figurines-characters of the selected artwork, on which you need to attach Velcro on the back. Thus, as the plot develops, the child is invited to attach the necessary figures to the flannelgraph.
- Magnetic is, in fact, the same as the previous view, only a metal board is used, and magnetic strips are attached to the figures instead of Velcro. The basis and, accordingly, the characters of such a theater are of very different sizes: from a small table version to a full-fledged screen for an auditorium or music hall.
- Shadow theater in the gardens is the most mysterious and unusual for the perception of children, preschoolers enthusiastically participate in such a game. To organize this type of theater, you will need a screen (vertically stretched white fabric), a lantern or table lamp (depending on the size of the screen), and black cardboard figures. Instead of toy characters, shadows can be created directly with the hand and fingers. This view is called "live shadow theatre."
The name of this type of theater speaks for itself - gaming activities are carried out ontable. Its peculiarity is that the scenery and characters should be small in order to be able to place all the necessary attributes of the game on the surface. What is a table theater in kindergarten:
- Paper (cardboard). Often such a finished theater can be found in any children's magazine - you just need to cut and collect all the necessary details and you can start the performance.
- Magnetic is a metal board with magnets - the characters of a fairy tale.
- A theater made from natural materials such as cones, chestnuts, acorns, etc. It is convenient to place such characters in a box of sand.
This type includes theatrical activities, which require attributes such as finger puppets or toys - "gloves". There are the following "wrist" types of theaters in kindergarten:
What is needed in order to organize such a theatrical activity? First of all, you need a screen. Its size depends directly on the size of the characters. In turn, dolls are most often made independently by the teacher. But pupils can also take an active part in the creation of characters. For example, finger puppets can be made from cardboard cones, fabric, tennis balls, and other materials.
"Glove puppets" can be made, for example, from mittens or socks, sewing the necessary elements to the base (face, hands, clothes andetc.).
It is important to note that the finger theater, in addition to other advantages, effectively develops fine motor skills of preschoolers, which, in turn, directly affects the formation of children's speech.
What is a riding theatre? This term was introduced by Russian puppeteers in the 16th century. Its peculiarity lies in the fact that the dolls are taller than the person who controls them. There are the following form:
- In the cane theater, puppets are used, which, accordingly, are fixed on a high cane, and the person who controls the characters is hidden behind a screen.
- Bee-ba-bo theater is becoming very popular. In principle, this is the same “glove” one, since the dolls are put on the hand. The only difference is that a high screen is used and, thus, the characters are shown to the audience at a level higher than the puppeteer's height.
- No less interesting is the theater of spoons in kindergarten. Attributes for such gaming activities are very easy to make on your own. For this you need a wooden spoon. On its convex part, the face of the character is drawn, and the clothes of a fairy-tale hero are put on the handle. During the performance of the children's performance, the little puppeteers hold the characters from the spoons by the handle.
Puppet puppets are used in the outdoor theater. Making them yourself is quite difficult, so most often they are purchased in specialized stores. DueDue to this feature, this type of theatrical activity is held in kindergartens infrequently. But it is the puppet theater that causes a storm of emotions and delight in preschoolers. Since the kids do not yet understand the mechanism of action of such dolls, the children imagine that the toys "came to life" themselves. It is this element of "miracle", "fairy tale" that contributes to the emergence of positive emotions in preschoolers.
Living Doll Theater
But more often than others, a "live" puppet theater is organized in kindergarten. Such activities can be carried out as a lesson on the development of speech, the world around, learning a foreign language, as well as during leisure. In addition, a live theater production can be dedicated to some holiday, such as Maslenitsa or the New Year.
The following types of game activities described are distinguished:
- mask theater;
- Giant Puppet Theatre.
The latter is most often carried out as a leisure activity in preschool. The roles of giant dolls are performed either by adults or older preschoolers. Younger children can only act as spectators.
Then, as a mask theater is suitable for children of any age. Even the smallest pupils have the opportunity to "reincarnate" in the hero of a fairy tale. The teacher can offer the children to retell the story that the kids love in such an unusual way or prepare a full-fledged performance for the parents.
Preschoolers can make masks for the upcoming performance on their own under the guidance of a teacher, for example, in classes for artistic and aesthetic development or during leisure activities.
How to make a screen for a theater in preschool?
In order to organize a theatrical activity with preschoolers, you will need various attributes, including masks, puppets, scenery. Of course, the necessary equipment can be purchased in specialized stores. But by offering the kids to make the necessary equipment for theatricalization of a fairy tale, it is possible not only to diversify the educational process of preschoolers, increase motivation for work, but also to realize the main educational and educational goals.
From what can you make a theater for preschoolers? For most types of such creative activity, a theater screen is needed. Kindergarten usually has the specified inventory either in the playroom or in the music room. But in the absence of a screen of the required size, you can make it yourself.
The easiest way to make such an attribute for a theatrical game is to stretch a thick fabric in the doorway. Depending on what type of activity is supposed to be carried out, a “window” is cut out in the material, or an indent is made at the top to accommodate the characters.
To organize a finger theater, you will need a small screen. Therefore, this attribute can be made from cardboard boxes, at the bottom of which it is necessary to cut a hole. Such a screen then needs to be aesthetically designed. It is recommended to decorate the box with universal decorations so that you do not have to make a new screen.for each story separately. So, you can arrange it in the form of a forest clearing, place a “house on the edge”.
Dolls for the theater in the preschool educational institution from improvised materials
Preschoolers really like to make their own puppet characters for theatrical games from unusual materials. From what can such attributes be made? A teacher who practices a creative approach to work is able to make figures from the most unexpected materials. For example, paper theater is the easiest and fastest way to make your own characters.
You can also use wooden ice cream sticks by pasting them with felt, foil, colored self-adhesive film. Photos of such characters for theatrical activities can be seen below.
Materials for making characters
What else can puppet theater characters be made of:
- cardboard, making two holes for the fingers at the bottom;
- tennis balls;
- disposable tableware: plates, cups, spoons;
- sock, mittens, gloves;
- plastic bottles;
- natural material, etc.
Thus, you can organize different types of theaters in kindergarten. When planning such activities, it is important for the teacher to take into account the age and individual characteristics of pupils, their interests. In addition, it is necessary not only to correctly conduct a theatrical game, but also methodically correctly think over the preparatory and final stages of work withchildren. The effectiveness of pedagogical work with preschoolers as a whole depends on these factors.