Old age is so different. For some, this is an opportunity to take a break from the hustle and bustle, others go headlong into their favorite hobby, for which there was not enough time before. Still others take up the development of a new business, profession, craft. There is no need to be afraid of old age, this is a great time when the children have grown up, you don’t need to go to work and there is time for yourself. But we must not forget about the characteristics of the body. Proper nutrition in old age is more important than ever.
Remembering how many pensioners live, the very idea seems utopian. After all, a small pension is enough at best for cereals and milk. But today the state gently reminds us that it is you and I who are responsible for how our parents will live in old age. Therefore, nutrition in old age is an issue that concerns all family members. Need to buynecessary groceries and deliver them home. If necessary, help prepare and pack them so that it is convenient to use. In case of illness, feeding may also be required.
To grandma for pies
If a person has just retired, then he is quite capable of serving himself, visiting the store and cooking not only for himself, but also for his grandchildren. Pancakes, pies, fragrant muffins begin to appear on the table more and more often. And it would seem that this is bad? Homemade cakes are inexpensive and very tasty. But!
Eating in old age requires strict control. It is very important to live long and stay he althy. We all know about the principles of he althy eating. But it turns out that nutrition in old age has other features that need to be considered. As for baking, better leave it to your grandchildren.
Fresh food is better than s alty food
This is the first and very important rule. In old age, you need to limit s alt intake to a minimum. That is, up to what is contained in bread, vegetables and other products. We usually see the opposite picture. By old age, a person loses sensitivity to bitter and s alty tastes. Therefore, more and more overs alting food. This leads to the development of various problems. These are edema, hypertension. Increased stress on the kidneys, capillary fragility, stroke - all these are the consequences of s alt abuse.
Therefore, one of the principles of nutrition in old age is a careful selection of ingredients, the study of compositions and the rejection of fast food. It's hard for manyswitch to fresh food, but this is a temporary problem. Soon the receptors will get used to and begin to notice even a small amount of s alt. And with its complete absence, the food will not seem nasty. Add aromatic herbs and spices to your food to ease the transition.
Second rule - be sure to have breakfast
The nutrition of the elderly should be not only of high quality, but also timely. With age, the breakdown of incoming food becomes worse and some of the nutrients are absorbed in insufficient quantities or completely leave the body unchanged.
Most often a person at this age suffers from deficiencies of vitamins B12 or B6. It is worth consulting with your doctor to prescribe additional nutritional supplements. It is also important to increase the amount of fiber in the diet at the expense of vegetables and cereals, garden greens in the summer.
The perfect breakfast would be oatmeal - it has a lot of vitamins and is affordable. And the most useful is the most inexpensive product that needs to be cooked for at least 10 minutes. All instant cereals are subjected to serious processing, which does not have the best effect on the safety of vitamins.
Combining drugs with food
Eating in the elderly is usually "timed" for their medication schedule. At the same time, it is impossible not to note the influence of the latter on the digestive process. Medicines can affect not only mucous membranes, but also taste buds and appetite. As a result, habitual food may seemfresh, tasteless. Any changes, whether it be excessive appetite or its complete absence, is an occasion to consult a doctor. He will review the prescribed treatment regimen.
The type of food matters
With age, the process of chewing food becomes more and more difficult. This is due to the loss of teeth. But even if a visit to the dentist helped solve this problem, age-related features remain. If you have breathing problems while eating, you should review your menu.
The nutrition of the elderly should be in accordance with their physical capabilities. It is worth giving preference to dishes in the form of mashed potatoes. A great option would be baked vegetables and fruits in the form of a smoothie. Baked fruit can be sprinkled with cinnamon and sprinkled with honey. Then they will become even tastier and he althier.
Nutrition in old and old age should meet the following goals: the body should receive all the necessary nutrients, but it is very important that the food does not overload the digestive organs. There is another important issue - this is the amount of fluid you drink. Very often, in old age, the feeling of thirst weakens, and a person forgets to drink.
For the normal functioning of the whole organism and the prevention of digestive problems, it is necessary to normalize the drinking regimen. Pure water is best, but milk and other liquids also count. If there are no objections from your doctor, then you should drink at least one and a half liters of water per day.
To date, there are no studies thatwould allow us to say with accuracy how an excess of protein will affect the body of an elderly person. But the lack will affect him for sure, and not in the best way. After 50 years, metabolism slows down, and you need to reduce portions of food, but protein is required no less than 0.8 g per kg of weight. The minimum dose is 45 g for a woman and 60 g for a man. This keeps muscles and bones he althy and reduces the risk of paralysis.
Protein is found mainly in animal products, but nutrition in old and old age should be based on the principle of avoiding large amounts of refractory fats. Meat must be lean. Preference should be given to turkey, chicken, sea or river fish. Regarding dairy products, this is also a valuable source of protein. But country milk, as well as skim milk, is best avoided. Foods of normal fat content provide excellent absorption of calcium, but do not overload the body.
Such the right calcium
Osteoporosis is one of the main problems that a person faces after 50 years. But this disease is the first path to fractures. Nutrition in old age should be the main intervention for the prevention of osteoporosis. By using the required amount of calcium, you can reduce bone fragility. Calcium can be consumed in the form of tablets and supplements, but do not forget about the traditional sources of this trace element: cheese, kefir, cottage cheese.
See your doctor if you are lactose intolerant. Sometimes a person eats all his lifedairy products, but only in old age begins to experience discomfort and nausea. This indicates age-related changes in the digestive and enzymatic systems. In this case, it is worth replacing dairy products with low-lactose ones or abandoning them altogether. In this case, you should definitely consult a doctor, purchase calcium supplements and supplement your diet with them. A fracture in old age does not heal well, for a long time chaining a person to bed.
The most important thing is the weather in the house
Malnutrition and dehydration can be caused by a variety of reasons. Features of the nutrition of the elderly are that a person often does not experience appetite. There is also the opposite situation, when in old age they begin to eat a lot. The reason for this may be various cognitive impairments. If you notice sharp fluctuations in the weight of a relative, then you need to take him to the doctor.
In this case, most likely, you will have to monitor the quality of food. But it's not just about the food. An elderly person needs your care, attention and warmth. A positive psychological atmosphere has a very good effect on the digestive processes.
Omega-3 fatty acids
This is an element that should be present in the menu of every person regularly, throughout life. But if we talk about the organization of nutrition in old age, then the role of the Omega-complex is even more important here. Fish oil is good for rheumatoid arthritis pain relief. Polyunsaturatedfatty acids can reduce the intensity of inflammatory processes. The choice of fish in the store today is huge, cheap and expensive - all of them will be a valuable source of Omega-3. But choose fatty varieties: herring, mackerel, catfish. You need to eat fish twice a week, boiled or baked.
Calories: friend or foe?
When a person grows up, and in adulthood a lot of physical work, he can practically limit his calorie intake. With high activity and heavy workload, he simply does not have the opportunity to sort out calories. The nutritional features of the elderly are that now they no longer need as many calories as before. This is easily explained by the fact that the metabolism is slowing down.
But this does not mean at all that you can now eat once a day or refuse most foods. The body still needs the nutrients it will only get from a balanced diet. To avoid sudden weight gain, you need to eat five times a day in small portions. The calculation of calories is carried out individually, special calculators or professional advice from a nutritionist can help with this.
The calorie content of the diet depends on the amount of physical activity. But most often, in old age, people begin to spend more and more time at home, near the TV. Therefore, calorie content should not exceed 2000 kcal per day. At the same time, rational nutrition in old age involves the inclusion in the menu of differentproducts in a certain percentage:
- The first group is the largest, it forms the basis of the diet. These are cereals and potatoes, bread and pasta. By weight, this is about 1.5 kg, but when choosing products, you should give preference to unpolished cereals or wholemeal bread.
- The second group is vegetables and fruits. About 400 g of these products are required per day. This does not include sauerkraut, canned food or pickles. Vegetables and fruits can be used as snacks.
- Third group - protein products. The percentage of consumption is 20% of the diet. About 200 g of chicken, meat, eggs or legumes and nuts should be eaten per day, which can be considered a worthy alternative. The only restriction is to choose products with a low percentage of fat content.
- The fourth group is dairy products, the consumption of which should be about the same as protein. Don't forget about nutrition in old age, the percentage of fat should be low, but low-fat foods are not a good choice, as absorption of calcium will be negligible.
- The fifth group is fats and sweets. This includes butter, sausage, muffin. The share of products of this group in the diet should not be more than 5%.
The nutrition of elderly and senile people differs from the diet of a middle-aged person both qualitatively and quantitatively. The abuse of simple and he althy food can lead to weight gain and related problems. ATdepending on age and gender, body weight, physical activity, the number of servings may vary within the specified limits:
- The first group. The number of servings is from 5 to 14 per day. Each can make up a slice of bread, half a bun, 1 potato, or 1/2 cup of rice, pasta, or cereal.
- Fruits and vegetables - they can be in the diet from 5 to 9 servings. Each of them can be 1/2 tbsp. chopped vegetables or a glass of greens, 1 fruit, 1/2 tbsp. berries, 3/4 tbsp. fruit juice, 1/4 tbsp. dried fruit.
- Third group. Two to three servings of meat and other protein foods. Serving size is 90 g of poultry or fish, 2 eggs or a glass of legumes, 3 tbsp. l. nuts or seeds.
- Milk and dairy products. 2-3 servings per day, each of which can be a glass of yogurt, 50 g of cheese, half a glass of cottage cheese.
- Fifth group - from 0 to 4 servings, which can be represented by a tablespoon of butter, margarine or mayonnaise, sugar or ice cream.
Despite the apparent simplicity and approximateness, this calculation is highly accurate and helps the nutritionist in the work, and also makes the task of patients easier.
Sample menu for the week
Taking into account the peculiarities of the nutrition of the elderly, it is possible to develop a special diet that provides the body with everything necessary and does not lead to obesity. The table shows one of the menu options for the week.
|Days of the week||Breakfast||Second breakfast||Lunch||Snack||Dinner|
|Monday||Tea and sandwich||Milk porridge, apples grated with boiled carrots||Soup, fish cutlets||Dairy products||Apple, Cutlets with boiled vegetables|
|Tuesday||Chicory with milk, cottage cheese||Hercules and tea||Beef stew with peas, compote||Fruit||Eggplant, baked, mashed potatoes, kissel|
|Wednesday||Sweet tea||Fruit and porridge||Sweet pepper salad, soup, meatballs with rice, compote||Compote and cottage cheese||Rice porridge and tea|
|Thursday||Milk with bagels||Porridge and sandwich||Noodle soup with meatballs||Dried fruits||Flats and sour milk drink|
|Friday||Cocoa with milk||Oatmeal porridge, egg and tea||Rice soup, fish steak, steamed, compote||Grapes, cheese||Tomatoes and rice and mashed potatoes, dried fruit compote|
|Saturday||Milk tea, bun||Milk porridge, butter sandwich, tea||Lentil soup, fish with mushrooms, cranberry jelly||Fruit||Lenten fish and vinaigrette|
|Sunday||Chicory and ham sandwich||Sandwich and cocoa with milk||Soup and boiled chicken||Kefir and bread with jam||Pie with cottage cheese, compote|
As you can see, the nutrition of the elderly and senile is not at all boring ormonotonous. A person usually has enough time to cook everything fresh every day. This is all the more important because proper nutrition preserves he alth and prolongs life. Fast food, a diet with a predominance of fats and carcinogens, works just the opposite.
It is very important that eating in old age and old age is accompanied by pleasant conversations. It is enough for a person just to be in the family circle so that his appetite improves. It is important to select products taking into account diseases and personal preferences of a person. But in the proposed version, there are definitely no foods that irritate digestion that could be harmful. Therefore, you can safely take this menu into service and make your own adjustments to it.
Nutrition for constipation
It's no secret that this problem in old age is quite acute for most people. Proper nutrition in old age and old age is the key to a quick recovery and good he alth. To do this, you do not need to follow complex rules:
- Exclude any dough and bread made from premium flour. This category also includes fatty meat and poultry, smoked meats and canned food, eggs, radishes and garlic, onions, turnips and radishes, mushrooms, any confectionery, fatty sauces. Under the ban falls cocoa and coffee, strong tea and jelly. Add to this rice and semolina - and the list can be completed.
- Be sure to eat with constipation wholemeal bread, vegetable soups, borscht and beetroot, semi-viscous and crumbly cereals, low-fat varieties of poultry and meat, fish, seafood and greens.
Usually with the right and sufficientthere are no problems with constipation. If the diet does not help, then you need to consult a doctor for the appointment of a corrective course. Although in some cases the reason is physical inactivity.
Instead of a conclusion
It is very important to eat right and balanced throughout life. But this issue is even more relevant for the elderly and senile age. Rational nutrition is not a diet, but a conscious change in the menu in order to maintain he alth and improve the condition of internal organs. A complete diet is the path to he alth and longevity, and this is now becoming more important than ever. More he althy foods and movement, less fat and sweets - only the first days this regimen causes discomfort. Soon you yourself will feel lightness and a surge of vigor. The body very quickly weaned from junk food.