All people are different: skin color, hair length, height, physique. And that's okay. However, things are different with babies. Even before the birth of a child, there are certain developmental norms, and a deviation from them is a signal that something is wrong with the baby. The decisive indicator is the weight of the child, because a small fetus is a problem that can sometimes affect life.
We already know that a small baby is a problem, but what it is is not yet fully understood. From the name itself it is clear that the main problem here is the underweight of the child. When childbirth begins on time, and the weight of the child is not more than 2500 grams - a small fetus. Hypotrophy is not necessarily accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in the size of the baby. Often - insufficient weight - a signal of the deviation of the fetus in the womb.
18 obstetric week of pregnancy
The baby in the womb by this time is already 12-14 centimeters in size, and its weight is about 150 grams. The body becomes more proportional, the phalanges on the arms and legs have already formed,the baby's skeleton continues to ossify.
During this period, immunoglobulin and interferon are already produced in the child's body. From which it follows that after the 18th obstetric week of pregnancy, the baby is independently able to defend itself against infections and diseases. Which reduces the risk of miscarriage. As well as a missed pregnancy.
The fetus already distinguishes sounds and voices, the heart muscle is almost finished forming and the doctor leading the pregnancy can check the heart for the absence of diseases using ultrasound. The strength and tone of the muscles increase, which allows the baby to push off the walls more strongly. This is the time when the mother experiences the first movements of the baby.
Often "in an interesting position" the question arises: "At what period of pregnancy are registered." Experts say: the sooner the better. There are three reasons that support this belief:
- The main systems and organs begin to form precisely in the first 14 days after fertilization. Mothers are strictly forbidden to drink alcohol, smoke and drink medicines. The need for taking vitamins is increasing, therefore, immediately after a positive test result, it is necessary to visit a gynecologist as soon as possible to prescribe a course of vitamins.
- Immunity during pregnancy is significantly weakened, so the risk of exacerbation of chronic diseases increases. During this period, feeling unwell is dangerous for a developing baby.
- Whenregistering in gynecology before the twelfth week, a woman in an official job will receive a lump sum allowance of 1/2 salary.
If the expectant mother is in excellent he alth and there are no complaints, then you can register from the seventh to the tenth week. At the slightest discomfort, and even more pain in the lower abdomen, urgently visit an obstetrician-gynecologist. However, it should be registered no later than 12 weeks, because from this day serious and necessary examinations begin. There is no maximum period for the start of observation, but if you come just before the birth, the doctor has the right to refuse observation. In addition, it is very irresponsible, both in relation to yourself and to the baby.
Deviation or feature of the organism
In medicine, there is a term "constitutionally small fetus." In separate families, for generations, babies with a body weight below the norm appear, but despite this, there are no significant deviations in further development. Small children often appear in women of small stature (up to 160 centimeters). In such a situation, even in the early stages of pregnancy, the girl is diagnosed with possible low weight. Fortunately, a born baby with insufficient body weight for the norm, in most cases, is completely he althy, and does not experience any difficulties on the way of growing up due to being born with low weight.
However, sometimes the diagnosis of a small fetus indicates a strong deviation of the fetus during pregnancy - fetoplacental insufficiency. This pathology isa consequence of the delay in the proper development and formation of the child. In another way - fetal hypotrophy. She needs special attention. Hypotrophy is divided into two types: symmetrical and asymmetric. In the first form of deviation, all organs are equally reduced in relation to each other. Asymmetric malnutrition implies a lag in the growth of all organs, with the exception of the brain and skeleton, which correspond to the term. This pathology can be prevented if you do not use alcohol, drugs, do not smoke and take care of your he alth so as not to pick up viral infections.
Reasons for underweight babies
Often such a pathology as asymmetric malnutrition appears in the third trimester with any difficulties during the period of gestation or with hereditary diseases in the expectant mother. Various diseases that affect changes in blood circulation lead to a slowdown in intrauterine growth of the fetus and its proper and normal development. Hereditary/chronic diseases of the girl, during which the female body experiences intoxication and lack of oxygen, affect the baby, which increases the development of malnutrition.
The question of maternal nutrition during pregnancy and its impact on development in the womb and the birth of a child with low birth weight is still open. Statistically, girls who constantly adhere to a low-calorie diet most often reproduce underweight babies. But do not forget the data that show that even during the Second World War, during the blockade of Leningrad, there werechildren (quite often) with perfectly normal indicators. The age of the expectant mother also occupies not the last place here: girls under 18 and after 35 have a much greater chance of fetal hypotrophy during the period of bearing a baby. For the body of a fairly young girl, this is difficult, and the body of an older mother, most likely, already has chronic diseases.
When diagnosing a fetus, the best option is ultrasound. In the process, the doctor looks at many parameters - the state of amniotic fluid, a violation of the placenta, and with Doppler monitoring, traces changes in blood circulation. To clarify the diagnosis of a small fetus, the doctor performs a Doppler study of the umbilical cord and blood vessels of the baby, and also monitors the speed of blood flow.
The doctor also conducts a cardiotocographic study, which shows what kind of heart contractions the child has, what is the reaction to his own movement or uterine contractions. With normal data from these two studies (even if the baby is small), the baby is he althy.
Provided that the baby develops without deviations during pregnancy, there is no need to resort to treatment. However, with a possible risk, complications or any developmental abnormalities, the expectant mother is prescribed therapy for her diseases, and they also restore placental insufficiency. The girl is prescribed drugs that dilate blood vessels to increasechild's blood supply. In addition, drugs are prescribed that create a slight hypertonicity of the uterus so that the vessels are not pinched, and blood flow improves. This will be home treatment or hospital appointment depending on the condition of the baby in the womb.
With successful treatment, the onset of labor is not rushed with medication. As a rule, when the time comes, the child manages to gain normal weight. Otherwise (lack of fetal weight), childbirth is caused artificially. If the baby is too weak to exit through the birth canal, then the woman in labor is given a cesarean.
Recommendations during gestation
A girl who carries a small child in her womb is recommended to have a dense, proper diet, which is filled with proteins, enriched with vitamins and complex carbohydrates. It is necessary to completely remove the psychological factor, because during the development of the fetus during pregnancy, the girl experiences a variety of sensations, including stress.
And it is strictly forbidden to be nervous during this period, the girl and the baby should feel peace and comfort. If the psychological factor cannot be eliminated at home, then doctors insist on hospitalization. There are girls who spent almost their entire pregnancy in a hospital, going home only for a couple of weeks.
The method and timing of delivery will depend on the result that was achieved during the treatment. With the improvement and independent weight gain of the fetus in the maternity hospital, you should not rush, baby,most likely, by the day of birth, she will gain the desired weight. But, therapy will not stop until its very appearance. If the fetus does not gain weight before 36 weeks, then a caesarean section is performed. What way to give birth is chosen not by the woman in labor, but by the observing doctor, after diagnosing the condition of the baby, the weight here does not greatly affect: if the child is weak - caesarean, and if mobile and supposedly he althy - natural childbirth.
In the second option, the girl is given spinal anesthesia. The newborn is placed in a heated cradle, and the mother and baby are released home only when the child's weight reaches at least 2,800 grams. The following will be the rate of fetal weight by week.
A child is always a big responsibility. For 9 months, the expectant mother takes care and bears her baby, and then takes care of him and raises him, but before that, you still need to give birth. A large child or a small birth process is inevitable and has its own subtleties that the girl will have to endure. During pregnancy, it is necessary to adhere to the recommendations of the leading doctor, and in no case self-medicate. It is important to note that the belly at 4 months of pregnancy, or rather its size, is certainly not an indicator of the diagnosis being studied, only a doctor can determine this and prescribe a further treatment and action plan.