Sabantuy is a holiday of the peoples of Bashkiria and Tatarstan in honor of the harvest, demonstrating the strength and dexterity of the Bashkirs and Tatars, promoting a he althy lifestyle. It has a long history, has preserved its traditions today.
Description of the holiday
The word "sabantuy" comes from the Turkic lexemes "saban" - a plow and "tui" - a holiday. It is celebrated in June in honor of the completion of spring sowing. This event is national and beloved, both children and adults take part in its celebration.
Sabantuy is celebrated every year, it was not held only in those periods when there were wars or hard times for the people. This is a holiday of labor, he alth, strength and dexterity. It has its own customs, rituals, usually consists of various competitions, accompanied by numerous songs and dances.
This holiday is protected by UNESCO as a masterpiece of the oral heritage of mankind, because it is a real gem of national unity and friendship.
Sabantuy: the history of the holiday
Folk festival has a long history. For the first time this holiday is mentioned in the notes of the Arabicambassador from 921 AD, who came to the lands of the Bashkirs and Tatars to study their traditions, life.
Initially, the holiday was sacred in nature, was held to appease the spirits and deities of fertility, so that they sent down a good harvest. Therefore, Sabantuy was celebrated in April before the sowing campaign. It was young guys who participated in the ritual games and competitions, since the sacred custom involved a symbolic wedding with nature, so the word "tui" in this case is more correctly interpreted as "wedding, marriage".
In addition, the ritual custom involved sacrifices and public prayers in honor of the god of the Sun and Sky - Tengri and in honor of the spirits of ancestors. Later, these pagan rites were replaced by the tradition of offering gifts.
The people's holiday Sabantuy was prepared in advance, even in winter. Young girls embroidered and sewed towels, scarves and shirts, which became the main reward for horsemen who participated in folk games and competitions. The most desirable and expensive reward was a towel embroidered with national patterns.
The main games and competitions were: horse racing, wrestling, running and agility competitions.
Modern holiday status
Folk festivities are still very common today not only in the cities and villages of Bashkiria and Tatarstan, but also in other settlements.
The Tatar national holiday Sabantuy officially has the status of a state celebration, decrees and orders are issued on the date, place of its holding, are appointedresponsible persons at all levels of government, the scenario is being thought out, the design of the holiday. Historically, folk festivities have clear rituals and traditions, however, there are also modern trends in its conduct.
In addition, Sabantuy has the status of a federal holiday and is held in many Russian cities: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Samara and others.
How is Sabantuy celebrated?
The national holiday Sabantuy usually takes place in June in 3 stages:
- celebration begins in villages and villages of the republic on the first Saturday after the end of the sowing season;
- festivities take place in cities in a week;
- after another 7 days, a grand celebration will be held in the capital of Tatarstan.
During the festivities in all administrative regions, special festive venues are held, usually on a large field - Maidan, where various competitions between real horsemen, performances by masters of arts and culture, and folk festivals take place. Races are always arranged at the hippodrome. In addition, the tradition of collecting gifts is preserved in villages and villages.
Competitions and folk games
On Sabantuy it is customary to hold various competitions and games to demonstrate strength, dexterity and just for the entertainment of the people. The most favorite pastime of all jigits is kuresh, belt wrestling, which is held between men of different ages.
The purpose of the competition is to grab the opponent by the belt and bring him to the ground. Firstthe fight is carried out between the boys, then the young men enter the battle, the third pairs are middle-aged men. The culmination of the competition is the struggle between two undefeated horsemen. The winner of kuresh (batyr) receives the main prize - a live ram.
Another main competition is horse racing, which can be held separately at the hippodrome or arranged directly on the Maidan, and in the latter case, the distance is determined by eye to any point.
Sabantuy is a holiday of he alth, so quite often jigits compete in lifting stones, demonstrating their strength. Weights or barbells weighing 25 kg act as gravity. The essence of the competition is to lift the stone with both hands and hold it in the right palm raised up.
This holiday is also fun, so joke contests are often held. The most common are various running competitions:
- with an egg in a spoon;
- with full buckets of water on the yoke;
- bag jumping;
- pair races, when the left leg of one person is tightly connected to the right of the other.
The following folk games are very popular:
- fight with bags of grass or hay that takes place on a slippery, unstable log;
- Blindfolded with a stick, you need to break clay pots that are on the ground;
- team or single tug of war, sticks;
- climbing for a prize on a high and smooth pole, the length of which can reach 15 m.
The cheerful folk holiday Sabantuy, the description of which cannot be complete without a review of traditional Tatar dishes, is also very hospitable.
Here it is customary to treat meat and sweet food. The following dishes are usually prepared on Sabantuy:
- Tatar lamb pilaf with tomato paste or any vegetables;
- remech - the most delicate meat pies, the feature of which is the presence of a hole on top of the bun;
- lamb stuffed with eggs, butter and spices;
- belish with duck and rice in meat broth;
- chak-chak is a traditional sweet dish, which is shortbread biscuits filled with liquid honey.
Children's holiday Sabantuy
Folk festival captures everyone, both adults and children love it. Initially, this tradition is preserved today, it was the children who started the celebration. They are the first to take part in competitions, enjoy playing folk entertainment. Therefore, Sabantuy was also held separately for children in schools and kindergartens.
Celebrate the holiday at the beginning of summer, when school holidays begin, in addition, children's Sabantuy coincides with International Children's Day.
Folk festivities children take into account all the traditions of this celebration:
- The day before they collect gifts for the winners, bypassing the houses of neighbors, relatives, good friends. All the same scarves and towels serve as presents, as well as toys, sweets and other things.
- The main holiday consists of various competitions, games in which boys and girls compete in dexterity and strength.
- A talent contest is traditionally held. Children are happy to sing, dance, read poetry.
- The end of the holiday - the presentation of gifts to the winners.
Children hold the celebration themselves, the hosts are dressed in national costumes, the participants bring sweet treats, after the event they arrange tea and fun dances. The children join the folk culture, imbued with the traditions of their ancestors.
Congratulations on Sabantuy
On Sabantuy - a holiday of labor and he alth - it is customary to say warm wishes to each other. In addition, congratulations are heard in newspapers and other media, from leaders at all levels and, of course, the president.
Wishes pour the most diverse, but the words about he alth, happiness, well-being remain unchanged. It would be useful to wish success in work and all earthly blessings.
You can give the following example of congratulations on Sabantuy: "With all my heart I congratulate you on the national holiday Sabantuy - ancient and forever young! A holiday of labor, hospitality, a generous harvest. I wish you he alth, prosperity and happiness! May you be accompanied by success in business, and all the blessings of the world accompany your family."
Traditions and innovation of the holiday
Folk festival has its own structure, consists of certain rituals, games. However, it develops, new, interesting trends appear that make it morevaried.
Sabantuy is a holiday that combines the traditions of the people and various innovations, the main of which are as follows:
- rewarding the best workers and winners in profession competitions;
- new types of competitions: chess, cycling, arm wrestling, volleyball, stilts competition and others;
- running with the best trotters from Russia and abroad;
- in some localities, the holiday begins with a prayer read by a mullah (it should be noted that the event in question is not religious).
Thus, Sabantuy is a Bashkir holiday of labor, strength, dexterity, he alth. General festivities, accompanied by various competitions, games, songs and dances.