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What tests are taken during pregnancy: transcripts of tests
What tests are taken during pregnancy: transcripts of tests
Anonim

Any woman, having learned about her pregnancy, is both happy and worried at the same time. She has many reasons for concern, but the main thing for most expectant mothers is the state of the baby's he alth. What happens to him, whether he feels well, whether he receives the substances necessary for development - all these questions cannot but disturb women. In order to get reliable answers to them, it is necessary to take tests on time. During pregnancy, doctors prescribe many directions for laboratory tests. Which of them must be done, and which can be abandoned? You will find this and other important and useful information about analyzes in this article.

What tests should be done for pregnant women

The very first analysis

It must be said that some girls, almost from the first weeks, rush to the clinic and demand a referral from doctors for laboratory tests. But according to the standards, the gynecologist can write them out only at the moment when the expectant mother is registered, that is, for a period of 11-12 weeks. Until that moment, she can still rest and sleep peacefully.in the morning. There will still be many early rises and trips to the clinic ahead, because tests during pregnancy need to be taken very often. Even in the most favorable situation, at least once a month.

In some cases, up to 12 weeks, a woman will have a blood test for the level of the hormone hCG. This analysis is done at the earliest possible date to determine the fact of pregnancy. A low level of the hormone gonadotropin can indicate a multiple or ectopic pregnancy, it reaches its peak at the 8-10th week, and is visible in the blood as early as seven days after conception.

What tests should be done when registering pregnancy?

When the period has come to 12 weeks, the woman is obliged to report her situation to the doctor. And the first thing he will do is give a referral for ultrasound diagnostics and a number of important laboratory tests. The first list of tests is very extensive, because the doctor needs to find out all the information about the he alth status of his ward. If a woman has any serious illness, he will be able to choose the right tactics for managing her pregnancy. So, what tests are taken during pregnancy after the first visit to the gynecologist? Mandatory include:

  • blood tests - clinical and biochemical, for HIV, hepatitis, syphilis, blood clotting, blood grouping and rhesus;
  • urinalysis;
  • bakposev from the cervical canal;
  • vaginal swab.

Also, the doctor writes out a referral for an analysis necessary to determine the woman's blood antibodies to infectious diseases such as rubella,herpes, toxoplasmosis and cytomegalovirus. These expensive pregnancy tests are important, but they are only available on request.

Tests during pregnancy

First trimester

All of the above studies are carried out before the 14th week of pregnancy, then the second stage begins. Before the end of the first trimester, many expectant mothers are offered to do another analysis - screening for genetic abnormalities in the fetus. This procedure consists of an ultrasound examination and a biochemical blood test. Usually, a blood test is done for those who have ultrasound diagnostics that have shown certain abnormalities in the development of the fetus. The uzist evaluates the parameters of the baby's collar zone, its CTE, the length of the nasal bone, the size of the head and the heart rate.

Screening tests during pregnancy are studies whose results indirectly indicate the likelihood of a child having Down syndrome, Patau syndrome, Edwards syndrome and some other diseases. Note that any deviation from the norm cannot be a 100% guarantee of the presence of any of these pathologies. Deciphering tests during pregnancy is carried out by a geneticist using a special computer program, and it can make mistakes. Therefore, if the doctor has serious suspicions about the abnormal development of the child, he will recommend a wider study, and it is better to listen to his words.

Second trimester

At this stage, women take general tests. If the condition of the expectant mother does not cause any complaints from the observing doctor, then starting from the 14thweek and up to the 26th week, she will need to conduct monthly urine and blood tests, and at the end of the second trimester, make sure that there is no syphilis, hepatitis, HIV and gestational diabetes. The latter disorder is detected using a glucose tolerance test.

For those girls whose first screening showed the likelihood of genetic disorders in the fetus, another screening is prescribed for a period of 16-20 weeks. Based on its results, a woman may be advised to terminate the pregnancy.

Prenatal screening

Third trimester

After the 30th week, the doctor should be visited more often - at least twice a month. Before each consultation with a gynecologist, who will measure the size of the abdomen during the examination, do weighing and conduct a survey, you need to take a blood and urine test.

During this period, the body experiences particularly strong stress on the kidneys, iron deficiency anemia is often aggravated. Urine and blood sampling is a general analysis during pregnancy, which will help to identify something wrong in time and quickly respond to changes in the body by adjusting the diet, drinking regimen, adding the necessary trace elements and vitamins to the diet. Also, some other research will be carried out before the birth. What tests to take during pregnancy in the third trimester:

  • general urinalysis;
  • biochemical and clinical blood tests;
  • check blood clotting;
  • test again for syphilis, hepatitis, HIV;
  • take swabs from the vagina, cervical canal, urethrachannel.

The latest research women often ignore, although their conduct is very important. If a pregnant woman does not cure the foci of inflammation in the vagina before childbirth, she jeopardizes the he alth of the child, who, moving through the birth canal, can “pick up” her mother’s bacterial or fungal infections. In addition, the pathogenic microflora in the vagina provokes a thinning of the mucous plug, which prevents infections from entering the amniotic fluid.

Pregnancy test

Prenatal tests

Every pregnant woman needs to be prepared for the fact that upon admission to the maternity hospital, she will again donate blood from a vein and urine. The study of these biological materials is done even by those who arrived at the hospital at night or late in the evening. These tests during pregnancy will help assess the woman's he alth and prevent complications during childbirth. First of all, bleeding. Doctors pay close attention to the level of hemoglobin. If it is low, then the mother is under increased surveillance.

Tests in the pregnancy pathology department

If a woman has a threat of premature birth or other conditions that are dangerous to the life or he alth of the fetus, she will most likely be referred for inpatient treatment in the pregnancy pathology department. There, in addition to standard studies, the doctor can conduct a comprehensive examination for the expectant mother. In a hospital setting, they do an extended blood test, take liver samples from her and monitor the level of hemoglobin. In the event of interruptions in the functioning of the kidneys or the appearancesigns of their inflammation, maximum attention is paid to urine, namely the presence of protein, bacteria and s alts in it, the level of leukocytes and erythrocytes is checked.

Blood test from a vein during pregnancy

Plus/Minus

All expectant mothers need to determine the Rh factor of their blood at an early date. If it is negative, it can cause serious complications during gestation, especially if this is not the woman's first pregnancy. Rhesus conflict causes the production of special antibodies that reject the child in the womb, considering it alien and potentially dangerous to her body. In the early stages, this can cause a miscarriage, in the future it is fraught with premature birth or developmental problems in the baby. The fact that there is a Rh conflict is indicated by special antibodies in the blood. In order to see any negative trend in time, Rh-negative women are tested for antibodies at least once a month until the birth itself.

Finger blood test

So unloved by both adults and children, a pregnant woman will have to take a blood test from a finger most often. According to the results of this study, the doctor can tell a lot about the he alth of his patient. Note that in pregnant women, blood counts are not the same as in other people. Norms of tests during pregnancy:

  • hemoglobin - in the first trimester within 112-160 g/l, in the second - 108-144 g/l, in the third - 100-140 g/l;
  • hematocrit – 31-49%;
  • erythrocytes – (3, 5-5, 6)х10¹² cells/L;
  • leukocytes – (4-10,5)x109 cells/l, in the second trimester the allowable maximum is up to 11x109 cells/l, and in the third trimester up to 15x10 9 cell/l;
  • stab neutrophils – 1-6%;
  • segmented neutrophils – 40-78%;
  • myelocytes - should not be, but up to 3% is allowed;
  • lymphocytes - within 18-44%;
  • monocytes - from 1 to 11%;
  • basophils - maximum 1%;
  • erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) should not exceed 45 mm/hour.

Complete blood count is taken regularly so that the gynecologist can assess the patient's condition in dynamics.

Finger blood test during pregnancy

Blood from a vein

What tests during pregnancy should be taken from a vein? Venous blood sampling is not done as often as from a finger. In the normal course of pregnancy - a maximum of three times. The laboratory assistant usually takes blood for several tests at once, including:

  • analysis to determine the group and Rh blood;
  • RW (syphilis);
  • hepatitis;
  • HIV;
  • biochemistry.

The latest study makes it possible to evaluate not only the work of the whole organism as a whole, but also its individual systems. It is necessary to pay attention to indicators such as glucose (3.3-4.4 mmol / l), protein derivative albumin (20-25 g / l), urea (2.5-8.3 mmol / l), creatinine (45-115 µmol/l), alkaline phosphatase (25-90 IU).

Urinalysis during pregnancy

Urine test

Urine is looking for proteins, bacteria and phosphates. If the protein content in the urineexceeds 0.033 g / l, this may indicate the development of proteinuria - a serious kidney disease. This condition is dangerous for a pregnant woman and for the fetus, and therefore if the doctor is confused by the result of the study, it is better to retake urine immediately. In order to exclude a mistake and take reliable biological material to the laboratory, before taking urine, it is necessary to wash with soap and thoroughly dry the external genitalia with a clean towel.

Vaginal discharge can also "spoil" the analysis. It is very easy to exclude them from entering the urine reservoir. It is enough to use an ordinary cotton swab, which covers the entrance to the vagina. By the way, the amount of protein in the urine of pregnant women is slightly higher than that of a he althy adult. Also, their urine contains bacteria, which, in principle, should not be in any other cases. But the level of phosphates (s alts) in the urine of the expectant mother is normally reduced. If this is not the case, the woman may have problems with the genitourinary system.

Amniotic fluid leakage

Vaginal discharge during pregnancy should be colorless or white, free of odor, mucus or lumps. But a woman needs to be wary even if they are watery and intensify with a change in body position. This may indicate that the pregnant woman is leaking amniotic fluid, which is very dangerous for her and for the baby.

What tests during pregnancy can a doctor prescribe if there is a suspicion of amniotic fluid leakage? The study is carried out using a special system consistingfrom a test strip similar to a pregnancy test, a flask with a solvent and a sterile swab. A polyester swab is inserted into the vagina for one minute, after which it is immersed in a flask and kept in this solution also for one minute. Then, a test strip is placed in the resulting solution, which reacts to microglobulin, which is found in high concentration in the amniotic fluid. If the water really leaks, two strips will appear on the test, if there is one, then everything is in order with the fetal bladder.

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