With the onset of pregnancy, a woman automatically acquires a special status, since she is en titled to a number of privileges. At the same time, doctors prescribe various studies that should be carried out throughout the entire period of bearing a child. One of them is a blood test to determine the amount of hemoglobin. His future mothers need to take it not once, but many times. This is done to control the hemoglobin rate in pregnant women in the 1st trimester and beyond. As a result, problems can be detected in a timely manner and appropriate action can be taken.
What is hemoglobin?
The term "hemoglobin" should be understood as special blood cells of protein origin, which are part of erythrocytes (red bodies). Its main function is to deliver oxygen to all body cells from the lungs. But in addition to this, the duties of hemoglobin also include the removal of carbon dioxide, which is delivered straight torespiratory organs, and they, in turn, get rid of it.
The proteins themselves contain iron, and therefore our blood is red. Thanks to this structure, hemoglobin performs its direct duties. In the event of a successful conception in the female body, there is a need for iron, and a significant one.
The role of an important protein compound
What hemoglobin should a pregnant woman have? To answer this question, it is worth a little understanding of some features of physiology. All life processes that take place inside the human body, regardless of the age of the person, occur with the participation of oxygen! It is a catalyst of natural origin, which is necessary for any reactions that occur every second.
The lack of this element or its intake in small quantities turns into a rather dangerous pathology - hypoxia. This condition seriously impedes the development of the child, and if left untreated, it can cause a number of intrauterine anomalies in the fetus.
And since iron is part of hemoglobin, it is very important to control its level. If this trace element in the blood is more or less than the norm, then this threatens with undesirable consequences.
Now we are getting closer to the question: what hemoglobin should a pregnant woman have? The concentration of this substance in the blood of he althy people can be different, based on gender and age. Representatives of the beautiful half of humanity (withunder normal circumstances) the number of blood cells varies from 115 g/l to 140 g/l. Men, by virtue of their physiology, require more iron, so in this case the norm is already a little different - 120-180 g / l.
However, expectant mothers also have their own norm indicators and depend on the gestational age. This can be seen from the table below.
|Term of pregnancy (trimesters)||Indicators of normal hemoglobin levels, (g/l)|
|Lower border||Upper limit|
Slight deviations of hemoglobin levels in pregnant women from the norm up or down should not cause concern. This is due to physiological characteristics, and the losses will be replenished on their own. However, in the event of a significant increase or decrease in hemoglobin levels, appropriate measures must be taken.
Control of protein concentration in the blood of pregnant women is carried out 3 or 4 times during the entire period:
- during the registration of the future mother in the antenatal clinic;
- from 18th to 19th week;
- 25-27 weeks;
- between the 32nd and 36th weeks.
If research is neededmay be done more frequently. And if anemia is suspected, the appointment of additional laboratory tests is not ruled out. In this case, a number of important parameters are determined - determination of the concentration of serum iron, ferritin and other blood parameters.
High hemoglobin concentration
What hemoglobin is responsible for during pregnancy, we now know - a deviation from the norm causes certain complications. Therefore, it is important to keep it at an optimal level. However, those women who live in the highlands, there is a high concentration of hemoglobin. At this altitude, there is too much oxygen in the air, so it affects the increase in the level of blood cells, which, however, benefits both the mother and the child.
The same can be said about ecologically clean areas of the globe. Here, too, the hemoglobin level may be slightly above the normal range, which is also not a pathology. You should not worry about this, because after the birth of the child, everything will finally return to normal.
However, it also happens that the discrepancies with the norm are quite significant. In this case, this indicates the development of pathology. Usually this is facilitated by a deficiency of vitamins B9 and B12, which are involved in hematopoiesis. Such reactions take place not only in the mother's body, but also in her child.
In addition, excess hemoglobin levels in pregnant women (see above for norms) are associated with a lack of fluid, which, in turn, is due to a number of reasons:
- hot weather;
- small drink;
- stress situations;
- excessive emotional and physical stress;
- dehydration with diarrhea;
- hereditary predisposition.
Another reason for the increase in hemoglobin levels lies in the activation of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, which are in the chronic stage. And what is characteristic, sometimes even the woman herself does not suspect the presence of these pathologies before pregnancy. The fact is that not all diseases manifest themselves openly - there are those that have hidden symptoms.
In most cases, anemia of a physiological nature begins to develop in women in the last weeks of their term. This happens for well-founded reasons - the amount of blood in the body increases. This condition does not require urgent intervention and also should not cause concern. As mentioned above, here, too, after the birth of the baby, the indicators will return to the normal level.
In low hemoglobin during pregnancy, the consequences can be no worse than with its high concentration, or even more serious. With significant downward deviations, this clearly indicates a pathology - anemia, which can occur in one of three forms:
- Light - from 108 to 90 g/l. There is no reason to worry here, just adjust the diet.
- Medium – 89 to 70 g/l. This situation is already considered serious, but not yet dangerous. The pregnant woman feelsfatigue, lethargy, and her performance decreases. Along with this, other signs of anemia appear - the surface of the skin becomes dull, the hair with nails becomes dry and brittle, the immune system weakens, and the heart rate (tachycardia) increases. This is already a reason to take more effective action.
- Heavy - 69 g/l or less. This condition is relevant in the case of multiple pregnancy, deficiency of essential trace elements, chronic diseases of an infectious nature. Also, one should not discount the violation of the absorption of iron. This situation is already more serious and causes concern - women need competent treatment in a hospital.
As you can see, anemia, or anemia, can be threatening. Moreover, the most dangerous consequence of low hemoglobin during pregnancy is oxygen starvation of the internal tissues and systems of the body of the mother and her child. This is the main cause of many intrauterine pathologies.
In some cases, in the last weeks of pregnancy, iron deficiency anemia turns into premature birth. Such a pathology requires not only the correct diet, but also a timely course of treatment.
Ways to increase hemoglobin levels
To bring the concentration of blood cells to normal levels, special medications are prescribed. Doctors also make useful recommendations regarding diet. In case of anemia, they are recommended to be observed strictly and regularly. Any omissions onlyaggravate the situation.
But actually, why does hemoglobin fall during pregnancy? As medical practice shows, this is largely due to anemia, and often this condition is called iron deficiency. In addition, those expectant mothers who are accustomed to a vegetarian diet are also at risk.
Each expectant mother should remember that a significant decrease in hemoglobin levels has a more serious effect on the fetus than its increase. It is the therapists who are responsible for the treatment of anemia in pregnant women, who will have to determine the cause of this pathology and the course of treatment. If the deviation of the hemoglobin level occurred due to a violation of hematopoiesis, then hematologists are involved in the work. Such an integrated approach brings more meaningful results.
Red blood cell concentration monitoring should be carried out throughout the entire pregnancy, even after the appointment of appropriate therapy. If at the same time the treatment does not give the desired result, then a consultation of specialists is held, where the course of treatment is adjusted in each specific case at the general advice.
Correction with medications
Some women are interested in how to quickly raise hemoglobin during pregnancy. It is guaranteed to increase its level with the help of preparations with a high percentage of iron content. Today, many pharmacies offer a wide range of similar products. But it’s impossible to prescribe such medicines to pregnant women to themselves duringavoid serious complications.
As a result, an overdose of iron can occur, which is detrimental to the liver. Therefore, the selection of iron-containing drugs, including their dosage, is the prerogative of a doctor who monitors a woman throughout the entire period of bearing a child.
These medicines come in different forms:
- Pills - usually "Sorbifer Durules", "Ferretab", "Ferroplex", "M altofer". As a rule, taking drugs to increase hemoglobin during pregnancy is taken before meals, and some drugs are not combined with calcium.
- Suspensions - "Ferronat", "Ferlatum", "Ferrum Lek". These drugs are preferred in terms of ease of use - some women like them.
- Solutions are fast absorbable. They can be mixed with natural juices or tea. The most common of them are "M altofer", "Totem".
Some medicines contain additional components - ascorbic or folic acid, B vitamins and others.
In severe forms of anemia, as well as stomach ulcers, hemoglobin levels are brought back to normal by injection. The same applies if the woman is intolerant to pills.
Foods containing iron that increase hemoglobin
Iron is not produced in the human body, and therefore, to maintain it within normal limits, care should be taken to enterthis element from the outside. This is not only possible with the help of medications, some foods are also rich in iron, and such a “therapy” is, for obvious reasons, more preferable. What should pregnant women pay attention to?
In order to avoid abnormal hemoglobin levels in pregnant women in the 1st trimester, it is necessary to carefully consider the menu. The diet should contain the following types of foods:
- Egg yolk.
- Meat products (preferably boiled or baked) - pork, beef, lamb, including tongues and heart.
- Poultry - chicken, turkey (also preferably baked or boiled).
- From offal, liver should be preferred.
- From legumes you can eat lentils, beans, peas.
- Kashi - buckwheat, millet. Whole grains will also help.
- Vegetables such as beets, pumpkin, tomatoes, cabbage, potatoes, carrots.
- Among fruits, pears, apples, peaches, bananas, apricots, plums, persimmons will bring significant benefits.
- Greens - how could it be without it: watercress, spinach, parsley.
- The use of dried fruits - dried apricots, raisins, dried apples, pears - will also play a significant role.
As you know, pregnant women should drink only natural drinks and no soda! And if hemoglobin deviates from the norm in pregnant women in the 1st trimester, it is useful to prepare beetroot, carrot, pomegranate juices.
Secrets of food digestion
In order for the compiled diet to bring significant benefits, eating someiron foods alone are not enough.
It is necessary to take into account some features regarding the absorption of iron by the body:
- The element so necessary for the child's body during its prenatal development is well absorbed in combination with vitamin C. In other words, the use of iron-containing foods or medications should be combined with drinking fruit or vegetable juices rich in this vitamin. For example, for breakfast, eat porridge and drink orange juice. For lunch, you can serve cutlets with a tomato drink.
- Black tea is not recommended as it interferes with iron absorption. As a last resort, you should opt for the green varieties of this drink.
- Some pregnant women enjoy drinking pomegranate juice, which is also helpful in increasing blood hemoglobin levels in pregnant women. Only its use should be limited to two spoons a day to avoid constipation.
- Folic acid, ascorbic acid, and vitamin B12 contribute to better absorption of iron. Calcium does the opposite, so dairy should be kept separate from iron-rich foods.
- An element from animal products is absorbed much better than from plant products. By the way, most of the iron is found in red meat, namely beef.
- Carrots should preferably be eaten fresh or squeezed out of her juice. Beets are good not only in boiled form. It can be seasoned with fresh fruit and vegetable juice with the inclusion of the same carrots.
In addition, dark chocolate also contains iron. In addition, its use contributes to the normalization of pressure and the production of endorphins. At the same time, caffeine is present in its composition, and there is also a possibility of subsequent allergic reactions in the child. For this reason, in order to normalize the norm of hemoglobin in pregnant women in the 1st trimester, it is worth limiting its content in the daily menu, but it is better to eat it in a day or two and little by little.
Severe anemia is both dangerous for the child and for his mother. But besides this pathology, there are other risks. For this reason, it is necessary to regularly undergo all the necessary examinations, including donating blood for analysis. Such forced measures work only for the good and allow timely identification of the problem, in respect of which appropriate measures will be taken immediately.
A habitual menu that fully satisfies a woman before pregnancy should be corrected by making the necessary changes with the support of a doctor. Some foods should be discarded, while others, on the contrary, will be useful in order to replenish iron losses. After all, it is already known what a low hemoglobin level can threaten.
In order to avoid many troubles, it is necessary to lead a moderately active lifestyle, to be outdoors more often. And remember that doctors do not just prescribe a hemoglobin test for pregnant women during pregnancy. This benefits the mother and her baby, who will eventually be born he althy and happy.