Artificial feeding of a newborn: norms, recommendations and regimen
Artificial feeding of a newborn: norms, recommendations and regimen

Video: Artificial feeding of a newborn: norms, recommendations and regimen

Video: Artificial feeding of a newborn: norms, recommendations and regimen
Video: Using an aspirator bulb - YouTube 2023, December

Nature has come up with an amazing nutrient for babies - milk. As mammals, humans feed babies the same way. Breast milk is the ideal food for newborns. It contains all the necessary substances for the baby in the right amount. In addition, the mother's immune cells help the child to develop protective functions of the body. Unfortunately, breastfeeding is not always available.

When there is no milk

Modern mothers are often faced with a lack of milk. Scientists suggest that this is the influence of bad ecology. It often happens that after the first birth, especially if they took place at a young age, there is no milk, and after repeated it comes. If there is no milk, the woman should not feel guilty. Our body, unfortunately, is not in everything we are subject to. In this case, resort to artificial feeding. If milkthere is, but it is not enough, children can be supplemented with a mixture. This is called mixed feeding. If the proportion of baby food is more than 2/3, such feeding can be attributed to artificial.

Donor milk

An alternative to infant formula in the first 3 months can be donor milk. This idea is not so new and original. At all times, we althy families hired wet nurses. Sometimes nurses spent more time with their children than mothers leading a secular life, and became closer and dearer to the child. In the modern world, this way of feeding is not known to everyone. But although this is natural breast milk, it should be treated with caution and approach the choice of a donor responsibly.

artificial feeding
artificial feeding

A woman whose milk will go to a child should follow the right diet for nursing mothers, lead a he althy lifestyle, and not suffer from infectious and hormonal disorders. She must undergo a medical examination. And still, the milk after it is pasteurized, while losing some useful substances.

Personal circumstances

Sometimes women choose to formula feed for other reasons. It can be pain and discomfort while breastfeeding. Maybe - the child's lack of strength or desire to suckle the breast. Occasionally there is a psychological barrier before touching the chest. And some are afraid to spoil its shape. In such a case, it is important to know that the shape of the breast changes during pregnancy, when it enlarges and prepares for feeding, and it is important to wear the right underwear. InWhile breastfeeding, it is also important to choose a good bra. Then feeding itself will not change the appearance of the mammary glands in any way.

On the other hand, no one has the right to tell a woman how to manage her own breasts. This concerns her body and the emerging relationship between her and the child, but not society. It is important to be aware that the type of feeding affects the child's digestive and immune systems. But if you have made a decision - be calm. An anxious and insecure mom is much worse than formula feeding.

child drinking from a bottle lying on his back
child drinking from a bottle lying on his back

One more exit

Sometimes a mother is forced to go to work early or continue her studies at the institute. Two options are possible here - artificial feeding or pumping milk. While at home, you can breastfeed your baby, and the rest of the time he will be fed from a bottle. Pumping is done with a breast pump. They are sold in pharmacies. The shelf life of expressed milk depends on the temperature at which it will be stored. If it is stored indoors and the temperature does not exceed 22 ° C, milk can stand for up to 10 hours without sourness and without losing its beneficial properties. It will keep in the refrigerator for up to 8 days.

By the way, expressed milk is a good option for those babies who don't want to breastfeed. You can try bottle feeding your baby.

If breastfeeding was interrupted due to illness of the mother or other circumstances, and now everything is back to normal, you can try to resume breastfeeding. The baby has not forgotten the sucking reflex, and the breast may begin to produce milk again. For this to happen, during the illness, you can continue to express milk, stimulating lactation. But, of course, you can’t give it to a child.

Sometimes the transfer of a child to artificial feeding does not occur from birth, but when breastfeeding has already been tried. For example, milk is lost, there is discomfort in the chest or a disease that prevents feeding, new living conditions arise that require weaning. In this case, children usually easily get used to bottle feeding. Sometimes when switching to a mixture, indigestion occurs. If this happens, you should definitely contact your pediatrician.

Feeding father

artificial feeding
artificial feeding

The advantage of artificial feeding of the baby can be considered the possibility of different family members to participate in feeding the baby. This will noticeably relieve the mother and can have a beneficial effect on the attitude of other close people to the child. Daddy will never be able to breastfeed, but from a bottle - please. In doing so, he may feel closeness and warmth, and his fatherly feelings may intensify. By the way, the skin-to-skin contact that occurs with breastfeeding is also available with formula. You can gently hold the baby to you and at the same time supplement it with eye contact.


Formulas for artificial feeding are made from cow's milk. Why is cow's milk not suitable for a newborn? Isn't everyone's milk the same? No. Different babies have different needs. Therefore, cow's milk is more fatty, but less saturated with iron and sugars. The vitamin composition is also different. Manufacturers of baby food take this into account and change the composition so that it approaches the composition of breast milk. Whey-based formula, which is less rich in the protein casein, is best suited for formula feeding newborns.

bottles in the fridge
bottles in the fridge

What are the mixes?

Domestic and imported.

Adapted or partially adapted. In fully adapted mixtures, the composition is as close as possible to breast milk, in partially adapted mixtures - only in part. Of course, only the first option is suitable for newborns.

Dry and liquid. Baby food can be sold not only in powder form. There are also liquid mixtures. Their convenience is that they do not need to be bred and they already have the correct proportion. However, they tend to be less stocked and more expensive.

In terms of composition, mixtures stand out not only from cow's milk, but also from goat's, as well as soy. The latter are used if the child is allergic to cow's milk.

Special occasions

For allergies, a special mixture is usually selected. The stronger the allergy, the more protein must be broken down in this product. There are also mixtures for premature and low birth weight babies. They are designated by the prefix Pre and are characterized by maximum adaptability for the unprepared digestive system of babies. In addition, they are very nutritious and contain more proteins and vitamins.

There are also intolerancessome components. For example, a child may have a lactase enzyme deficiency. In this case, the mixture will be devoid of milk sugar - lactose, which breaks down this enzyme. With phenylketonuria, babies are fed a mixture devoid of phenylalanine. And when regurgitation, thickeners polysaccharides are added.

There are also iron-fortified formulas for anemic children. They increase hemoglobin.

There are fermented milk mixtures. They are used for digestive problems. But they are far from suitable in all cases and sometimes can only exacerbate the problem. Their selection takes place very carefully under the guidance of a doctor.

You must understand that all specialized mixtures are prescribed by a pediatrician and you should not choose them yourself without a recommendation. After all, if the baby does not need a high content of some substances, they may be in excess in his body, and vice versa, he may be deprived of something important.

Preparing for feeding

Feeding a bottle-fed baby requires hygiene. Before feeding, the adult's hands should be thoroughly washed, and all items should be sterilized. Boiled water is used to dilute the mixture. It is important to measure the amount of powder correctly. The baby will suck as much as he needs. But if the mixture is too small, he will, in fact, drink water and risk stunting and weight loss. Excess nutrients are also not helpful at all. It carries with it the risk of a very dangerous condition - hypernatremia, i.e. high sodium content in the blood. In addition, it is fraught with obesity andconstipation.

baby drinking from a bottle
baby drinking from a bottle

Eating mode

What is the mode of a bottle-fed baby? The daily amount of food will be exactly the same as when breastfeeding. But the mixture is absorbed by the child longer, so the breaks between meals increase. If during breastfeeding they usually last 2-3 hours, then with artificial feeding - 3-4 hours. Feeding on demand, as with breastfeeding, will not work here. The body of a child, of course, is complex and sensitive, he knows a lot himself. But artificial feeding of a newborn is not a completely natural situation. And if, eating breast milk, the baby himself knows how much and when he needs, then in this case he may require the mixture more often than it is useful for him, preventing the product from being digested.

With age, the frequency of feeding decreases, and the amount of formula at a time increases. A bottle-fed child eats 5 times a day for 100 g per month. Time passes, the volume of the stomach increases. And with artificial feeding to a child at 7 months, 3 meals a day will be enough. However, 210 ml will need to be poured into the bottle immediately. But there is another reason for such rare feedings. Babies are transitioning to solid foods and baby food is being supplemented with solid foods.

Amount of food

When determining the amount of food, you need to focus on the age and weight of the child. So, at 2 months, babies need an average of 850 ml, but some will need 650 ml, and others a liter.

A bottle-fed baby may be prone to obesity and metabolic disorderssubstances. Therefore, it is important to avoid overfeeding. If the baby drinks too much mixture and quickly gains weight, the reason may be, oddly enough, in the opening of the bottle. If it is too wide, the baby absorbs the formula so quickly that it does not have time to feel full.

Artificial children must be supplemented with water, and a little later - with fruit broths. This will serve as a good prevention of constipation, which often occurs with this type of feeding.

mother brings a bottle
mother brings a bottle

Mix change

Sometimes with artificial feeding, you may encounter a situation where the baby's body does not accept the mixture. He has an allergy or digestion is disturbed. In this case, doctors recommend changing the mixture. You can do this by consulting your pediatrician. The mixture changes gradually. It is necessary to gradually add it to the child's diet, gradually replacing the old one. It is important to ensure that the new mixture does not cause allergies or other painful reactions.

Feeding artificial baby

What else is important to know about artificial feeding? With this type of nutrition, the baby will have to receive complementary foods earlier. Breastfed babies receive complementary foods at 6 months. This is the age of maximum readiness, when the baby can most often sit up, does not push the spoon out of his mouth, and his digestive system can absorb more complex foods. By this time, the growing child ceases to have enough milk, and he asks for more and more.

With artificial feeding, this moment comes earlier. The point is that the mixturepoorer components necessary for the child than milk. At the same time, it is somewhat more difficult to digest it, so the baby's digestive tract is already more trained. It's still not worth the haste. As early as 4 months, artificial feeding may involve additional complementary foods. If the child is full of the mixture, and blood tests are normal, for example, hemoglobin, there is no need to rush. So, at 3 months complementary foods are introduced only on the recommendation of a doctor. It is also acceptable to introduce additional formula-fed foods at 5 months if the baby is feeling well.

baby being spoon fed
baby being spoon fed

Complementary feeding rules are generally the same as for breastfeeding. You should not enter it if the baby is sick or teething. A new product is introduced little by little - starting with a teaspoon, after which the baby is supplemented with a mixture. The difference with breastfed babies will be that the first product for the artificial baby will be fruit puree or juice, and not vegetable supplements. It is usually not worth starting with cereals. These babies gain weight quickly and are prone to constipation, so mashed potatoes are the perfect food.

Eating after weaning

If before this feeding was distributed evenly throughout the day, now the baby is switching to an almost adult mode. His diet consists of breakfast, lunch, afternoon tea and dinner. It’s better to start with five meals a day. An example is the diet of a formula-fed baby at 6 months:

  • 6.00: Give only the mixture.
  • 10.00: You can give baby puree or porridge.
  • 14.00: Lunch, you can eat more hearty. The lunch will include a vegetable soup in vegetable or meat broth, vegetable mixture, half the yolk and fruit juice.
  • 18.00: mix or kefir, biscuits, cottage cheese, fruit juice.
  • 20.00: mix or kefir.

As you can see, if you compare the diet of a breastfed baby at 6 months, it will be less varied. What's the matter? It is worth remembering that the feeding of an artificial baby was started earlier. Formula feeding at 6 months suggests that the baby has been eating solid foods for a couple of months. More products managed to enter its menu.

Supplementation with mixed feeding

If a baby is breastfed, but there is not enough milk, you need to understand exactly how much he is not getting. For this, the baby must be weighed before feeding and after it on a special baby scale. During the day, you need to do such weighings and calculate the difference, and then add everything together. So it will be possible to find out how much milk the baby consumed per day. This figure can be compared with the tables, referring to the age and weight of the baby. But there is another way to determine if a child needs supplementary feeding. He will usually show anxiety if he does not have enough food. After all, nutrition is one of the most important needs, and a child, starving, feels a threat to life. Any he althy body will fight for food.

baby is syringe fed
baby is syringe fed

If formula-fed babies are bottle-fed, this should be avoided when supplementing. It is better to use a spoon or syringe without a needle. Whysuch tricks? Drinking from a bottle is very convenient. Unlike the breast, fluid comes out of it regularly. The baby can get used to and begin to refuse the breast in favor of the bottle. If you want to continue breastfeeding, you must avoid this situation.