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Method of child development: popular methods, authors, principle of development and age of children

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Method of child development: popular methods, authors, principle of development and age of children
Method of child development: popular methods, authors, principle of development and age of children
Anonim

Immediately after birth, a baby is like a blank slate. He quickly absorbs all the information, remembers emotions, learns to think, distinguish good from evil, etc. Even those children who are not given a lot of attention gradually dissipate. However, there are techniques by which you can grow a truly intelligent person. A smart kid manages to cope with everyday tasks much easier. Which method of child development to choose? It is worth exploring different options and giving preference to the most suitable one.

Baby development up to a year

Loving parents, without realizing it, take an active part in the development of the baby. Touches, kisses, a smile - all this gives its results. And it is not at all necessary from the first days to choose a certain methodology for the development of the child. Few people know that the manifestation of mental abilities in the crumbs of the first days of life does not depend at all on the parents. In the small brainHuman beings have certain mechanisms of cognition of the world. All moms and dads have to do is create a comfortable environment for the development of the baby. The child should not be hungry or dirty. When discomfort appears, the mechanisms aimed at the development of the baby cease to operate. What is the interest in knowing the world if you want to eat?

In order for the development of the child to proceed fully, the mother must help the baby physically. As soon as a small person begins to hold his head (closer to one and a half months), he should be picked up more often, kept in an upright position. Thus, the child will learn the world from different angles. Closer to the fourth month of life, babies can already take toys on their own and study them. Around a small person there should be as many bright safe objects as possible. It is worth remembering that the baby will want to taste the toy. Therefore, it is important to keep the room clean.

Starting from the seventh month of life, there is a rapid mental development of the crumbs. Mom should learn how to assess the development of the child. Almost all children at this age are able to do the same thing. Deviations will be minimal. In the first year of a baby's life, monthly visits to the pediatrician are recommended.

Narrow space limits the mental development of a small person. Do not keep your baby in a crib or playpen for a long time. On walks, you should also hold the baby in your arms more often, discuss the environment with him. In the house it is necessary to create the most comfortable and safe environment for the baby. Don't scold the babythrowing toys. This is a normal element of full mental development.

Nikolai Zaitsev's method

When a baby reaches 12 months old, it is already possible to actively participate in the process of his mental development. If we consider the methods of development of children of 1 year old, you should pay attention to the option offered by Nikolai Zaitsev. The way the mental development of babies involves the use of visual aids. These are various cards and cubes depicting letters, numbers, fruits, animals and objects.

Zaitsev's method is based on the systemic supply of material in small portions. The child's education takes place in the form of a game. Most often, such lessons do not bother children and bring great pleasure. If the baby is tired, it is recommended to stop classes. The physiological perception of the material should be at a high level.

Zaitsev Cubes

Thanks to the method of Nikolai Zaitsev, kids learn to speak very quickly and read already closer to three or four years. The main idea is that the elementary element of speech is a pair of letters (warehouse). Nikolai Zaytsev suggested depicting such warehouses on cards or on the faces of colorful cubes. By a similar principle, learning to count is carried out. Numerical rows are depicted on cards and dice.

Nikolai Zaitsev's method of child development has a huge number of advantages. Every kid with whom they are regularly engaged begins to read quickly, learns to count even before attending a preschool. In addition, children develop creative thinking, talents are discovered. The guys havewho study according to the Zaitsev method develops visual memory, they easily memorize poems.

This development scheme has its drawbacks. The classes do not take into account fine motor skills of the hands. But this is very important at the stage of preparing a child's hand for writing. Toddlers really learn to read and count quickly. Against this background, children go on an accelerated program. In the elementary grades of the school, such children become not interested in learning. Therefore, it is important to consider other methods of intellectual development of the child.

Glenn Doman Method

Glen Doman is an American scientist who has developed a unique methodology for the early development of children. It is interesting that no method of mental improvement of babies in the first years of life has caused so much controversy. For the first time, such a method of child development began to be used back in the mid-40s of the last century. Glen Doman was a young military doctor who was an intern at the Institute for Accelerated Child Development. The specialist came to the conclusion that when stimulating the "sleeping" areas of the brain with external stimuli, it is possible to significantly accelerate the mental development of the child.

Initially, the technique was tested on sick children (with the exception of the blind). The kids were shown cards with large red dots. Later, word cards began to be used. The lesson took no more than five minutes. After a month of regular classes, the kids, who had not previously spoken, uttered their first words. Older children quickly learned to read and count.

Doman cards

The purpose of child development methodology is to stimulate mental abilities. Thanks to the classes, kids who were considered mentally retarded quickly caught up with their peers. In addition, classes help to develop faster and physically. Children who are trained according to the Doman method begin to perform complex gymnastic tricks and have other sporting achievements. The scientist proved that the human body, even in the first years of life, has great potential.

The development of attention is very easy. The technique is suitable for children at any age. But the sooner you start practicing, the better the result will be. The scientist proved that the brain grows only when it works. Doman cards can be used from birth. Until the age of three, the brain develops most actively. From three to six years of age, brain activity decreases significantly. However, this does not mean that classes should be stopped. The good thing is that the parents themselves can take care of the baby. There is no need to involve specialists.

The downside is that this method of child development shows high efficiency only at an early age. After three years, other options should be considered.

Cecile Lupan Method

How else can you conduct early development of children up to a year? There are different methods. The works of Cecile Lupan, a young mother who decided not to trust the upbringing of her babies to strangers, deserve special attention. Cecile moved away from Doman's rigid principles. The woman was sure that the development of the baby should be interesting and versatile. InitiallyCecile Lupan herself used the Doman technique to develop her daughter. However, soon the young mother realized that the learning process should be adjusted.

What should be the early development of children up to a year? Any method can be chosen. However, it is important that only close people conduct classes with the baby. Not a single qualified teacher in the first months of life will be able to give the baby the same as mom or dad. The second important point: learning is an exciting game. Classes must be stopped even before the baby shows signs of overwork. Using her experience (Cecile is a professional actress) and knowledge, the woman developed interesting activities during which the kids could quickly develop mentally and physically. The young mother tested the technique on her children.

The basic principle is this: learning should be fun. In addition, Cecile suggests that overprotectiveness be abandoned. Children must learn to solve their own problems on their own. We must not forget about feelings. Scientists have long proven that children who are hugged and kissed regularly develop significantly better mentally and physically.

children read

Cecile Lupan's technique is suitable for babies from birth to five years old. Close communication between babies and parents very quickly shows good results. Unfortunately, many parents pay little attention to sincere cognitive communication, not wanting to answer “stupid questions”. But this is the main mistake that prevents children from fully developing.

The method shows really good results. However, you need to be prepared for the fact that the child will have to devote a lot of time. This way of early development is not suitable for hot-tempered authoritarian parents.

Waldorf Pedagogy

If we consider the methods of development of school-age children, you should pay attention first of all to this option. The bottom line is that when teaching, it is necessary first of all to focus on the personality of a particular child. There are no special tricks here. Learning is just the real life of a child in a comfortable family climate.

Waldorf pedagogy was founded by the scientist Rudolf Steiner, who paid special attention to the development of school-age children. In 1907, The Education of the Child was published. Here, for the first time, effective principles of teaching were revealed. In 1919, Rudolph headed a kindergarten, and then a school for the children of employees of the Waldorf-Astoria factory. Hence the name of the technique.

Rudolf Steiner was one of the first to note that childhood is a special period in the life of every person. If a child stays “small” for as long as possible and lives in a comfortable family atmosphere, it will be much easier for him to adapt to adult life in the future. Steiner's methodology is based on respect for childhood. Each child develops at his own pace. The main task is the development of natural abilities. Every child must believe in himself - and he will succeed.

Beautiful children

If we consider the methods of development of young childrenschool age, it is also worth taking into account the work of Rudolf Steiner. He paid special attention to the organization of the space of the child. A kid in the first school years can develop perfectly if nothing suppresses his freedom. Therefore, in schools that conduct training according to the Steiner principle, in addition to desks and blackboards, there are soft toys, a drawing corner, boxes with a designer.

Toys Rudolf Steiner paid special attention. Hard objects with sharp corners are not accepted. Preference is given to toys made from natural materials. The wooden designer or self-sewn doll is especially popular.

Free play is the main activity of the child. At the same time, Waldorf children have no rules at all. They play as much as they want and what they want. Teachers only monitor the safety of pupils.

Musical development of children

It is believed that a baby who perceives music correctly from an early age learns to read and count faster, develops well physically. There are various methods of musical development of children. The works of Sergei and Ekaterina Zheleznova are very popular. The couple have a pedagogical and musical education. Thanks to the game form, methodologists provide children with important information. At the same time, classes are selected in accordance with the age characteristics of the baby. The most popular is the method of development of a child of 4 years. It is believed that at this age mental abilities are most rapidly strengthened through the game.

The second principle of the "musical" technique -children should be taught through motor activity. While moving to bright music, the child receives positive emotions, “sleeping” areas of the brain open. After such physical activity, any information is absorbed much faster.

Children are dancing

All classes are held to the music in a playful way. The teacher or parents show the baby certain movements. In this case, the pupil himself decides whether to repeat it or not. Nobody is forcing anyone. The Zheleznovs' technique allows children to develop musical servants and rhythm. As a result of interaction with various objects, fine motor skills of the hands develop perfectly. Accelerate the process of high-quality mental and physical development allows close contact with the mother.

Classes are suitable for those who are considering methods of early development of children 3 years old. However, you can start preparing your baby much earlier. Even one-year-olds can move perfectly to the beat of the music.

Nikitin Method

This method of development for children of 6 years and older caused a huge amount of controversy, despite the fact that it uses simple principles that are available to any family. The early development methodology was developed by the Nikitin spouses - Boris and Elena. Teachers used the chosen principles in the process of raising their own families. Many teachers use the Nikitin method today. However, there are those who consider this way of learning limited, not suitable for many families.

Children of the Nikitin spouses from early childhood developedindependence. They learned from their own mistakes, gained experience. It was completely out of character for the society of those times. To the surprise of others, the Nikitin children showed excellent results. The level of their development corresponded to the level of children who were older by 3-5 years. Even before going to school, kids learned to write and read. The technique also contributed to the active physical development of the children.

child in the sandbox

Nikitins were sure that most adults choose the wrong approach in matters of communication with a child. Caring for a baby comes down to everyday necessities. Parents only make sure that the child is fed and dressed. And the learning process happens by itself. At the same time, parents take an indirect part in the development of the child, help him, direct him in the right direction. The basic principle: a small person can do absolutely everything. At the same time, he is also responsible for his actions. Parents discuss the current situation with the child, help him to draw a conclusion.

According to the Nikitin method, parents should encourage the freedom of creativity. Children are free to choose what and how much to do. Closeness to nature is also encouraged. Children in the natural environment develop well and get sick less. Particular attention is paid to physical development. Children who develop according to the Nikitin method, as a rule, attend various sections (choose on their own).

School of the Seven Dwarfs

Almost every method of speech development of preschool children can be successfully applied at home withoutattracting specialists. The School of the Seven Dwarfs is no exception. This is a series of picture books, thanks to which every child can develop perfectly mentally. The advantage is that educational books have different themes (“in the store”, “at the circus”, “on a walk”, etc.), so children almost never get bored. Children with parents examine books, discuss what they saw. Thus, vocabulary is quickly replenished, memory is trained.

Experts note that the "School of the Seven Dwarfs" is worth paying attention to those who are considering methods for the development of children from 1 year old. During this period, the most active development of brain regions responsible for memory and speech is observed. It is up to two years that children form the basis of perception of reality.

There is no single author of the "School of the Seven Dwarfs". When creating instructive books, elements of other popular techniques were used. So, children visually perceive the picture, hear the information that the mother says, try to imitate the main characters of the story. In this way, the baby develops mentally, physically and emotionally.

The advantage is that such classes can be carried out from birth. In addition to bright pictures and interesting stories, the books contain exciting tasks that kids are happy to complete. There are also incentive prizes for the correct execution in the form of bright stickers. For each age, a developing book is selected individually (there is a special instruction).

Maria Montessori Method

There are many methods for diagnosing the development of preschool children. If the baby is lagging behind his peers, you should make an appointment with a specialist. It is possible that you will have to work with a teacher. Many people prefer to develop their wards using the Maria Montessori method. She created her own system of education. The method of development of a child 4 years and older helps kids to start reading, writing and counting earlier. However, today, early development schools are opening more and more often, in which even one-year-old babies can study with their mothers.

Children in the garden

The essence of the method is that every child can explore the world on their own. Adults need only a little push. The teacher only creates a special environment in which a small person can fully develop. Indoors, various attractive materials are openly available - paints, wooden cubes, water. In this way, each baby develops at his own pace, doing exactly what he wants.

The task of a teacher who works according to the Montessori system is to consider the individuality of a particular child behind pranks. As practice shows, not everyone has the patience to engage in this technique. However, those who go to the end, manage to achieve really good results. The educator is just an interested observer who only watches over the safety of the child.

In Montessori groups, children in different age categories can study at the same time. And this is another plus. younger guysimitate the elders, and adult kids feel responsible for their classmates.

It has a technique and its drawbacks. Most often, the child is left to himself, there are no role-playing and outdoor games. In addition, after the democratic atmosphere prevailing in Montessori groups (everything is possible here), children find it very difficult to get used to standard schools and kindergartens. The technique can also be suitable for shy children. These kids will not be able to ask for help if something does not work out for them.

Benefits and harms of early development

There are many methods for diagnosing the development of preschool children. When a child enters a kindergarten, psychologists and qualified teachers work with him. Experts agree that children develop well in a team, and there is no need for additional stimulation of mental activity.

Is it worth doing extra work with a child? Do I need a special method for the speech development of preschool children? How to raise your baby, everyone decides for himself. However, it should be understood that accelerated development is also not beneficial. Children who already in the first years go one step faster than their peers (they can read and write much earlier), subsequently make poor contacts. Many of these guys become outcasts. After all, they are different from others.

However, there is no need to go to extremes and leave the development of the child to chance. Joint pastime, attention and love are the best elements of a full-fledged existence of a child at any age.

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