Finally, the long-awaited baby was born in the family. Both his parents and grandparents wanted to see him so much, all the time imagining what he would become in a few years, how they would all raise and educate the little one. But after its appearance, you can face a huge number of problems. One of them, which constantly worries young mothers and assistant grandmothers, is the weight gain of the newborn.
What is the "reference point" of the baby's weight
Each newborn baby, as soon as he was born, should be examined by a pediatrician, and at the end of this examination, the baby should be weighed and measured for his height. The reason for the pride of parents and relatives is the weight of 4 or even 4.2 kg, which is considered to be heroic.
Doctors consider normal weight in the range of 2.6 to 4.0 kilograms, and height - from 46 to 56 centimeters. The ratio of height and weight makes it possible to calculateQuetelet index. For example, the weight of a newborn baby is 3, 350 kg with a height of 52 cm. The weight of the baby is divided by his height, it turns out 64. Since the ratio of 60-70 is considered normal, we can say that the crumbs are all right.
The baby, together with his mother after birth, remains in the hospital under the supervision of doctors for a few more days. It is weighed again on the day of discharge. From these two numbers, which indicate weight at the very beginning of life and a few days later, when mother and baby are discharged from the maternity hospital, the subsequent weight gain of the little peanut begins, and then is highly dependent.
Baby weight at birth
Babies are born with different indicators of height and weight. The initial weight of the little one depends on several factors:
- mom's nutrition during the months of pregnancy (if the food is high-calorie, the baby gains more weight);
- gender (boys are often bigger than girls);
- baby he alth;
- the presence of bad habits in a pregnant woman (if the expectant mother smokes, drinks, uses drugs, she may have unhe althy children whose weight will be insufficient);
- heredity (if mothers are thin and short, they give birth to small crumbs; tall mothers who are overweight will have larger babies);
- the psychological and physical condition of a woman - if a mother lived in a state of stress for a long time during pregnancy or she is unhe althy, this can affect the he alth of children - their illnesses and smallweight.
Baby weight at discharge
After birth, babies lose a little weight. Weight loss occurs for several reasons:
- the little ones are trying to adapt to the conditions of life, because the baby changes the environment very dramatically, but for now the baby is not used to living in it; because of this, the weight at discharge is less than the weight at birth by about six or even ten percent, and the norms of weight gain for each baby are counted from this second figure;
- loss of fluid - when the baby is born, he begins to breathe; a significant amount of fluid escapes through the skin and respiratory system;
- setting nutrition - at the very beginning of his life, the baby drinks colostrum in small portions; this happens until he improves nutrition, and mom gradually begins to receive tasty and nutritious milk.
Norms of weight gain for a baby-baby in the first year of life
The initial weight can be restored almost within the first week. A significant increase can be found in the first three months. So far, the baby sleeps a lot, moves a little and eats.
The weight gain of a newborn in the first month of his life is as follows: every day a little one can gain about twenty grams. In the second month - already twenty-five; in the third - thirty. There are kids who add two kilograms in the first months. A small increase is considered to be about 450 grams, that is, approximately 115 grams every week.
From the fourth month, the baby slowly begins to crawl, little by little turns over,tries to sit, that is, he moves quite actively. He now has increased energy costs, consumed fat reserves. During this period, the baby gains from 400 to 600 grams per month. A little later, at the age of six to nine months, the increase will decrease even more. It will be in the range of 300-500 grams.
The rate of weight gain in newborns from nine months to a year is as follows: the little one will gain about 100-300 grams every month. Thus, his weight will exceed the one that was at the beginning, approximately three times.
From minus to plus
So we already know that newborns lose some weight early in their lives. Not only does the body leave the liquid, but also leaves the original feces - meconium. By the time the baby and mother are discharged from the hospital, a gradual weight gain begins in breastfed newborns: the mother now "produces" more breast milk. True, this is the case if the little one is actively suckling.
If the weight continues to decrease with the baby actively sucking at the breast, the baby should be examined. Maybe there are some problems with the digestive system, or the baby has a congenital lactose deficiency (in this case, the little one suffers from severe gas formation, pain in the tummy during feeding, the baby may have green stools).
Weight gain in newborns on breastfeeding, as well as on artificial, is from half a kilogram per month. As a rule, babies gain their weight unevenly. Weight gain ratenewborns by months - from 600 grams to approximately one and a half kilograms. It happens that in the first month of life they recover by one and a half kilograms, and in the second - by only 500 or 600 grams. It is necessary to control the continuation of the growth trend so that the overall increase can fit into the normal one.
It is quite natural that the weight gain of a newborn baby worries parents. Therefore, they strive to equalize the mass of their children by all available means, focusing on the tables provided in the literature and the Internet. But it should be borne in mind that many medical tables were compiled about a third of a century ago. After some changes were made to the data on the mode of handling the baby and the mode of feeding (all this was introduced in order to change the old maternity hospital rules), such tables are more recommended for calculating the weight gain of toddlers who are bottle-fed.
Babies gain their weight in a slightly different way. So, on average, the weight gain in newborns by months (WHO established these figures) is as follows: 800-1000 g per month during the first ninety days of life, and in the next three months, starting from the fourth and sixth - 600-800 grams. After six months, the mass is gaining, but a little slower. By the year the baby weighs about eleven to twelve kilograms.
Weigh the baby at home
There are situations when a mother is sure that her newborn baby does not eat well, as a result of whichgaining weight poorly. In this case, you can carry out a control weighing of the volume of milk that the baby sucked. Since it is rare for any family to have a special children's scale, the usual floor scales that many people have will come in handy. Before feeding the little one, one of the parents takes him in his arms and stands on the scales (it is better if the scales are electronic, then the mass can be determined with an accuracy of tens of grams). After the baby has eaten, you can again measure the total weight - the crumbs and the parent. The difference that turned out in the values \u200b\u200bwill be the mass of milk or mixture eaten.
What should mom do if the baby is not gaining weight well
The most correct answer to this question would be - feed the baby more densely. If the weight gain of the newborn is not quite what is expected, and the little one is only breastfed, do not immediately introduce the mixture into his diet. This decision can lead to the fact that the mother's milk supply will decrease. A similar shortage can be found in very young children who like to sleep, doze off during feedings, suckle inefficiently. Due to lazy suckling, milk production in mothers gradually decreases. As a rule, the child begins to feel hungry by the evening. It is at this time of day that mommy has practically no milk left in her breasts. You can "get" it only with active sucking.
If a mother wants to keep breastfeeding, she should not feel sorry for herself and almost always keep the baby at her breast. As soon as he wakes up, breastfeed him without bottle feedingwater. The situation will improve in a week. If everything goes well, it is permissible to make intervals between feedings, but not very large - no more than three hours during the day, and six at night.
If the baby is rapidly gaining weight
More often, young mothers worry about the fact that their beloved babies do not gain the necessary weight, even if the baby eats according to all the rules and the weight gain in newborns by months corresponds to all the numbers in the tables and recommendations of pediatricians. In some cases, they also experience diametrically opposite reasons. The peanut is recovering too quickly, and this fact is alarming for parents. You should be aware that sudden weight gain in babies can cause:
overfeeding a baby; Basically, this applies to infants who are on mixtures; the consequences of exceeding the feeding norm and the wrong mixture - a predisposition to allergies, little physical activity, long-term diseases, mastering new skills for a long time;
hormonal imbalance; some drugs that are based on hormones affect lactation, in addition, they can help reduce the production of milk in the mother; if a hormonal disorder is observed in a baby, he is constantly recovering, you need to get a consultation with an endocrinologist
When parents realize that the weight gain of a newborn is too different from accepted standards, it is necessary to conduct a thorough examination of the heart, thyroid and kidneys after seeing a doctor,take x-rays and get tested. The sooner the disease is detected, the easier it will be to treat it.