2023 Author: Priscilla Miln | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 06:25
The threat of ecological catastrophe is one of the global problems of humanity. False ideas about the inexhaustibility of resources, a pragmatic attitude towards all living things have put the existence of people, animals and plants at risk. Realizing the danger of the current situation, the members of the UN in 1992 established a holiday date: April 15 - Day of Environmental Knowledge.
What is ecology?
Ecology (Greek "science of habitat") is the study of the interaction of people with other creatures, the environment. They also distinguish human ecology, which studies the problems of population, the physical and mental he alth of homo sapiens, and human capabilities.
Ecological is the knowledge about the properties, diversity of objects and natural phenomena. This does not mean ideas about how organisms are arranged, live, reproduce, but the search for optimal ways to preserve favorable conditions.living conditions for all the inhabitants of the planet.
Elementary knowledge of ecology is necessary for each of us to learn how to protect the environment. That is why April 15, Environmental Knowledge Day, is a date that is significant for all people on Earth.
Development of ecology as a science
Primitive man considered himself a part of the world, completely dependent on the elements, so he was forced to observe what was happening around him, to make elementary generalizations. The first knowledge about the laws occurring in nature was not of a scientific nature, but contributed to the survival of people. Scattered facts gradually formed into a system.
Purposefully explore living beings began in the ancient world. The first source that tells about the way of life of fish, animals, birds, was Aristotle's work "History of Animals". The author paid close attention to the relationship between the way of life of our smaller brothers and their environment. Similar questions were also considered in the works of Theophrastus and Pliny the Elder.
Great interest in the study of the environment was shown during the Renaissance. Scientists actively analyzed the flora and fauna of their homeland, other lands discovered by great travelers. The first ecological experiment was put by Robert Boyle. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of atmospheric pressure on the lifestyle of animals.
Later, the influence of environmental factors on organisms was studied by Carl Linnaeus, J. Buffon, J. B. Lamarck, scientists of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The term "ecology" was first proposed by Ernst Haeckel. As an independent scientific knowledge, ecology took shape at the beginningXX century. Further development of the doctrine of the interaction of the organism and the environment is associated with the names of K. A. Timiryazev, V. V. Dokuchaev, F. Clemens, V. N. Sukacheva.
The new methodology of science was developed by V. I. Vernadsky. The scientist introduced the concept of "noosphere", by which he meant the state of the biosphere, which is formed under the influence of the mental activity of people. The driving force for the further development of life on Earth is the mind, which is required to rebuild the "living shell" of the planet in the interests of humanity.
Environmental issues began to be seriously considered in the sixties of the twentieth century. Decades later, Ecological Knowledge Day began to be celebrated. The scenario for April 15 (list of celebrations) is being developed by organizations themselves.
Since 1996, the project "Days of protecting the environment from environmental danger" has been launched annually in Russia. Purposeful work with the population begins on April 15. Ecological Knowledge Day also serves as the first day of the action.
For about two months, lectures and practical classes of environmental orientation are held with students. Schoolchildren defend natural history projects, arrange exhibitions, travel along ecological paths, visit zoos, stations for young naturalists, and wildlife preserves. Adults speak at conferences and seminars, report on the implementation of state environmental programs. Thus, April 15 (Ecological Knowledge Day) at the Smolensk Zoo begins with classes on the topic "Man and Nature". Institution employeesstrive to form in the younger generation an understanding that man is the only creature capable of preventing a catastrophe. Teachers and staff of the institution gather at the final conferences.
No less interesting is the Day of Ecological Knowledge (April 15) at school. Enthusiastic teachers gather students for class hours, conduct environmental lessons, arrange promotions, organize master classes in making birdhouses, planting trees, cleaning the territory, and offer to check the degree of personal interest in saving the planet.
On the Day of Ecological Knowledge (April 15), events are held to form an ecocentric type of consciousness in people. In the XIX-XX centuries. the thinking of scientists and ordinary citizens was anthropocentric. The attitude towards the environment at that time corresponded to the statement of the hero I. S. Turgenev about nature-workshop and man-worker. In the aspect of ecological knowledge, human life is considered not from the position of “what the environment gives me”, but from the point of view of how to interact with other creatures so that everyone is happy.
Realizing the danger of an ecological catastrophe, scientists create various scenarios for the development of life on Earth. Someone believes that the civilization of the future will be completely man-made. Some people are close to the ideas of non-waste production, limiting the consumption of resources, and the exploration of other planets. Despite conflicting views, most experts agree on one thing: fixingsituation is impossible without the greening of technologies, areas of activity and human lifestyle.
The biosphere will exist without people, but the existence of homo sapiens without the biosphere is impossible. This should be remembered on April 15 (Environmental Knowledge Day), as well as on all other days of the year.
For the first time, international environmental programs were discussed in 1972 at a conference under the auspices of the UN in Stockholm. Monitoring became the first global project. Monitoring of fresh water, forests, mountain ranges, desert, etc. is carried out at stations around the world.
Since 1986, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program has been operating, the projects of which include the determination of climate change, the patterns of chemical and biochemical processes, and the analysis of the results of ecosystem interaction. Close attention is paid to the features of past biocenoses and forecasting. The fruitful cooperation of specialists from different countries leads to positive results.
Man has always been drawn to what he saw, and space was no exception. To prepare for the flight into the unknown, a huge number of various studies and experiments were carried out, the result of which mankind saw on April 12, 1961 - the day when a person was able to leave our planet
The global environmental problem today affects almost every corner of the world. Promotion of the fight against pollution of nature is one of the steps to the preservation of the environment. To this end, April 15 is celebrated as the Day of Ecological Knowledge
Parting words to the first grader. September 1 - Knowledge Day: poems, congratulations, wishes, greetings, orders, advice to first graders
The first of September - the Day of Knowledge - a wonderful day that every person experiences in his life. Excitement, a beautiful outfit, a new briefcase… Future first-graders begin to fill the school yard. I would like to wish them good luck, kindness, attentiveness. Parents, teachers, graduates should give parting words to a first grader, but sometimes it is so difficult to find the right words
Jewish holidays for people who are not connected with the culture of this people seem to be something incomprehensible, mysterious and at the same time attractive. What are these people happy about? Why are they having so much fun? For example, the Purim holiday - what is it? From the outside, it seems that the participants in the celebration are so happy, as if they had just escaped some kind of big misfortune. And this is true, only this history is already 2500 years old
October 22 is the White Cranes Festival. This is an event of solidarity and honoring the memory of soldiers who did not return. The symbol of the crane, as the personification of the souls of dead warriors, rising up. As a symbol of infinity and purity