In ancient times, the steppe and northern forest (tarpana) breeds of horses were brought to the southern Ural slopes, which became the parent pair for the Bashkir horse. Hardy horses became the pride of the whole people and played an important role in their lives.
The Bashkir breed, whose history began in the 17th century, received the name of the country in which it was bred - Bashkiria. And due to the fact that it borders on the Ural lands, horses began to spread and be actively used in Siberia. The main role of the Bashkir horses was to deliver mail, because they easily overcame long distances due to their endurance, diligence and unpretentiousness.
Horses of the Bashkir breed quickly gained popularity. They began to breed in the Samara, Perm and Kazan provinces, where they were harnessed to the troika to overcome long distances. After all, animals could ride up to 150 km in eight hours withoutstops and feed.
The content of the Bashkir horses did not cause any trouble. They were driven out to pastures all year round and fed on their own, and for the winter they made hay for them and set up shelters in which horses could hide from frost and cold wind.
Norov of the horse of the Bashkir breed was formed under the influence of environmental conditions. Steppe and forest roots also influenced the character. Therefore, the Bashkirs are represented by wild or semi-wild animals with a developed sense of ownership. Herds are often divided into groups - shoals, which are run by stubble stallions, protecting and protecting their shoal not only from the encroachments of strangers, but also from predatory animals, in fights with which horses often die.
The horses of the Bashkir breed, the description of which we give, run in herds, often left unattended. This is due to the fact that the stallions-leaders are responsible for the duties assigned to them. They do not allow the horses to disperse and do not allow strangers to them. This applies not only to animals, but also to humans. Confidence is only given to the familiar bystanders.
The true Bashkir breed of horses, the photo of which is presented below, combines the characteristic features of steppe and forest animals. Today, work is underway to improve the breed. As a result of interspecific selection and a properly developed diet, modern Bashkirs are distinguished by tirelessness, strength and endurance, despite their short stature.
In addition to the listed advantages, what else distinguishes the horses of the Bashkir breed? Its features also lie in the fact that this is one of the rare animals whose hair does not cause allergies in people.
Bashkir horses have a large build with relatively short stature. The height of the representatives of the breed at the withers does not exceed 150 cm. A rather large, rough head is located on the massive fleshy neck. Animals are distinguished by a straight back and a loin that is convenient for fixing the saddle, which ends with a slightly lowered croup. Bashkirs are proud owners of a wide powerful chest and strong lean limbs with developed hooves. The mane and tail are thick and long, often contrasting in color with the thick coat of the body.
Stallions and mares differ in size:
- height at the withers: 144-147 cm and 140-143 cm;
- oblique torso length: 152-154cm and 148-150cm;
- chest circumference: 178-180 cm and 175-177 cm;
- metacarpus: 19.5-20 cm and 18.3-18.7 cm;
- live weight: 450-460 kg and 430-440 kg.
The color of the horse of the Bashkir breed was inherited from their northern forest ancestors - tarpans - and can be mouse, savrasy (more often representatives of the steppe subtype), tan, red, brown, igren and gray. There are also zebroid suits with clear whitish stripes on the body.
Mountain and steppe subtypes of the rock are distinguished, which differ slightly in size (mountainsmaller), in terms of productivity and appearance. According to economic characteristics, several groups are distinguished, which are completed according to the level of milk yield, fitness for harness and saddle. The inhabitants of the steppe area are better suited for riding due to their lighter head, high legs and slender body. They also have a more mobile and playful disposition.
There are also draft and horse-drawn subtypes of the Bashkirs. They are valued for their speed and agility in running, easy handling and the ability to travel long distances without food or rest. Horses have a kind and trusting disposition, which made them indispensable companions of cavalrymen during the Great Patriotic War, and today they are used to teach the art of riding.
Horses of the Bashkir breed, whose characteristics suggest suitability for hard agricultural labor and endurance when riding and draft riding, are also actively bred for the purpose of obtaining meat and milk. And if horse meat is a traditional product in Bashkiria, from which kazy (horse meat sausage), various meat dishes are prepared, as well as dried and dried, then there have been conflicting disputes about dairy production for a long time. Many believed that getting milk from mares would lead to the degeneration of the quality characteristics of the breed, because the growing body of the foal would not receive the necessary amount of nutrients.
But after doctor Postnikov proved usefulproperties of mare's milk, animal husbandry began to actively gain momentum. In Bashkiria, light draft and heavy draft breeds appeared, which were crossed with local horses. The result was hybrids that were larger and more productive than the pure Bashkir breed.
The number of horses grew rapidly, but due to hybridization, the population of purebred Bashkir horses began to decline, and this could lead to the complete extinction of the breed. As a way out of this situation, it was proposed to open breeding stations, the activities of which made it possible to preserve the unique qualities of the Bashkir horse.
Keeping Bashkir horses
Horses of the Bashkir breed are the most unpretentious due to the qualities inherited from wild ancestors. They are able to be kept year-round in open pasture conditions and independently obtain food for themselves. With the approach of cold weather, horses grow thick long hair that does not need regular brushing. But in conditions of harsh winters with heavy snowfalls, shelter and food must be provided to animals.
In order for horses not to suffer from diseases, it is necessary to control their growth and development, during which the animals must move a lot. Consultations of specialists will not interfere, and at the end of work, it is necessary to clean the nostrils and hooves, because moisture and sweat can accumulate there, which negatively affect the he alth of pets and can become a source of infections.
Nomadic life and relative freedominfluenced the unpretentiousness of horses to food. Most of the time they are able to independently find enough food for themselves, and in winter the herd eats harvested hay, concentrated feed and vegetables. With a balanced and sufficient diet, horses do not require additional feeding, and they tirelessly perform agricultural work and travel long distances in harness.
Features of choosing a horse
Sale of horses of the Bashkir breed customer orientation. That is, you should choose an animal based on the purpose of using the animal.
- If the animal is purchased for agricultural work and transportation of goods, then a stallion is better. They are stronger and more enduring than mares, able to perform almost any job.
- For dairy production, it is necessary to take a mare, having clarified some indicators in advance. If a foal or a young filly is purchased, you need to understand what her productivity is. This can be determined by the indicators of her mother's milk yield. The rate of milk production varies between 1.5-2 thousand liters per year.
- Horse of both sexes are equally suitable for riding. Bashkirs are characterized by agility, playfulness and speed of running, as well as the ability to overcome long distances. And thanks to the complaisant disposition, the Bashkir horses are ideal for learning to ride both adults and children.
It should also be taken into account that when using animals for heavy work, care should be taken toadditional balanced food, so that pets restore their strength as much as possible.
What can representatives of the Bashkir breed get sick with
Animals, like people, are prone to disease. All diseases of horses are usually divided into contagious and non-contagious. The first include ailments caused by infections from the penetration of parasitic microorganisms into the body of an animal. Animals can be infected by brethren, birds, rodents and blood-sucking insects. Such ailments are characterized by rapid spread and cause enormous damage to the economy.
Non-contagious diseases usually include injuries to animals. Leg and hoof injuries are the most common.
Horses of the Bashkir breed are unique animals that combine the qualities of wild ancestors and the obedience of domestic breeds. They are famous for their high load capacity, endurance and unpretentiousness. Today, they are the most sought-after animals for training in riding skills, because the animals are distinguished by a calm and balanced character.