Yesterday, a cheerful toddler was building Easter cakes in the sandbox and rolling cars on a string, and today notebooks and textbooks are already on his desktop, and a huge satchel is hanging behind his back.
The preschool child has turned into a young schoolboy. What are the age characteristics of children of primary school age, how to educate a student with mental retardation (MPD) and what should be paid special attention to when teaching a child with a hearing impairment - all this will be discussed in this article. We will try to cover the topic in as much detail as possible so that you do not have any questions.
Age characteristics of primary school children
Children of primary school age are children from 6 to 11 years old, the so-called primary school, from the first to the fourth grade. Many parents ask the question: “At what age should a child be sent to school?” There is no definite answer to this. One is ready and at the age of 6 can easily serve40 minutes in a lesson, to understand and remember everything, and another at the age of 8 will not be able to do this and already in the middle of the first lesson will lose all attention. Therefore, before making a decision on the beginning of a new, adult, school life for a child, one should go through a medical-psychological-pedagogical commission (MPPC). In each kindergarten, this commission takes place at the release of the baby from the preparatory group. But if parents have even the slightest doubt about the advisability of a child attending school at the age of 6-7, then you should contact a clinical psychiatrist and neurologist. If these specialists are not in the clinic to which the baby is attached, then you will have to go to the city psychoneurological dispensary.
Appropriate age for first grade
At this age, a year for the development and "maturation" of a child's brain is a very long time. Today's too energetic children should not cross the threshold of the school before the age of 7, and some, especially active ones, should be left in the kindergarten until 8. Let the baby feel harmonious in the classroom, and not break out screaming from the school without understanding anything What was the teacher explaining? Hurrying up with admission to the first grade, you can permanently discourage the child's desire to learn. Do not take this away from your baby, because the world of knowledge is exciting and interesting, open the door to it in time, do not rush, prepare both the child and yourself so that it doesn’t work out, as in that children’s song: “Dad decides, but Vasya surrenders.”
So, the age characteristics of children of primary school age imply a large development reserve. This means that from the beginninga new life in a young schoolboy, all his conscious processes begin to rebuild, the child acquires qualities that are already characteristic of adults, because the student is included in a new activity for him. The child develops interpersonal relationships, and all cognitive processes become stable and productive.
Do I need additional preparation for school
For the vast majority of children, attending a "preschool" school is highly recommended. But only those classes that will be held at the school where the child will study in the future will give their positive effect. And the teacher who will become his class teacher. The teacher gets to know the children in advance, prepares future students for exactly the training program that they will have throughout the entire elementary school, in a word, prepares the children “for themselves”. Children, in turn, get to know a new person (their future class teacher), premises and rules.
Having gone to the first grade after the "preschool school", the child already feels confident. He knows where his office is, how to get to the bathroom, where the wardrobe and dining room are located. This extra confidence is very important for a little schoolboy. Usually classes are held a couple of times a week, in the evenings. There is no homework assigned, and such classes are free.
How parents can help a preschooler
In order to use the reserves already available to the child, it is necessary for parents to make every effort to quicklyadaptation of the student and direct the age characteristics of children of primary school age for the benefit of the student. Use his curiosity and thirst to learn new things for good.
Adults should translate all the games of a preschool child into a student channel: teach mindfulness, develop perseverance and self-control. Let there be more board games, they just develop all these qualities.
Young Schoolboy Mode
A strict regime for an elementary school student is simply necessary. Take whatman paper, paints, felt-tip pens and draw a wall newspaper together with your child. Call it "My day" and minute by minute describe the entire weekday of the student - from getting up to going to bed. Don't forget to include the time for games and recreation there.
Hang your handmade newspaper in a prominent place next to your child's desk. Not far from it there should be a clock by which the student will compare his affairs.
There are some features of children of primary school age that will not allow you to easily and simply observe this regime prescribed in the wall newspaper "My Day".
Child may be naughty when getting up. Then just pick it up 10 minutes early. Let him lie in bed, stretch. You can lie next to him and chat about the beginning of the day. The kid can be stubborn about doing homework: parents should speak with the child in a calm but serious tone about strict observance of the regime, there should be no threats, no blackmail, no bribery. Adults need to be confident andalways talk with a student on a positive wave.
Education of first-graders, or Who is in charge at school
Parents should understand that they are in charge at home, and the teacher at school.
Features of children of primary school age are that the opinion of an adult is very important to them. And if at school the teacher says one thing, and at home the parents say the exact opposite, then this has an extremely negative effect on his learning. He begins not to understand who is right and who to listen to.
If the parents do not agree with the requirements of the teacher, then in no case should this be discussed in the presence of the child. Talk to the management of the school, find a compromise with the class teacher, or better, just trust an experienced teacher who has a lot of positive feedback. Before sending your child to school, talk to the parents of students who have previously studied with this teacher.
Features of first graders
The age characteristics of children of primary school age, briefly listed below, will help parents navigate:
- The opinion of the elders is important for the child, so the requirements of the teacher and parents must match.
- A first grader is like a sponge soaking up everything that happens around him, so be careful what you say. Went through the IQ of the salesperson from that store? Tomorrow he will speak about his classmate with the same words.
- The baby starteda new, adult, school life in which everything is changing at lightning speed, so constantly talk with the student, because if some problem begins to emerge, it is easier to solve it at the very beginning.
- Allow your child to choose after-school activities on their own, do not take a football player to art school, this will not bring any positive results.
- Show by personal example that learning is great, read books together, watch scientific and educational programs, visit museums and exhibitions.
Consider the characteristics of children of primary school age. The table will help to visually show the day of a little schoolboy.
|Activity||night sleep||day nap||school lessons||doing d/z||walking|
|Time||9 o'clock||1 hour||4 hours||30 minutes||1 hour|
Features of children with mental retardation
Features of children of primary school age with mental retardation are that such functions as memory, perception, thinking, speech, imagination, attention, etc., are either partially or completely impaired. The child cannot concentrate on the subject being studied, or learning is simply not interesting to him, although he is not interested in it only because he does not succeed, and he does not see the point in writing parallel sticks, because no matter how much he tries to write them, they all still not the same as in the sample.
Let's see what adults can do for a student with mental retardation.The characteristics of children of primary school age, summarized below, will help parents to attract the attention of the child:
- It is difficult for a schoolchild to concentrate on what is said to him, therefore, when explaining something, mom can make up her lips with bright red lipstick and speak in articulatory speech. As soon as the child is distracted, say: look at my mouth. Since it will stand out very much on the face, it will be easier for the student to see and hear again.
- Bright nails work on the same principle when something needs to be shown. By tapping a piece of text shown on the page with a finger, an adult will quickly attract attention (a bright pointer can also be attributed here).
- Speak loudly, slowly and clearly.
- An adult should switch attention: tell in words, then draw it on a piece of paper, then act out a scene, then explain everything again from the beginning. Sometimes you have to do 3-4 such circles of explanations.
- If a child swings his leg at the moment of explanation (nibbles on a pencil, tears paper into strips, etc.), do not stop, this is what helps him to focus on what is being explained to him, this is their peculiarity.
Children with mental retardation do not have visual, musculoskeletal, or hearing impairments. There are usually no severe impairments of speech and intelligence. Age characteristics of children of primary school age with mental retardation lie in reduced performance and lack of motivation, which adults should work on.
Features of children with hearing impairment
Hearing dysfunctions entail secondary deviations, first of all, speech development is delayed, which, in turn, reduces the amount of information received. There are also changes in coordination and difficulty in orienting in space. Features of children of primary school age with hearing impairment are reflected in the physical qualities of the child. Pathological hearing impairments change the vestibular apparatus, so physical education and other physical activity are very important in teaching such children.
Age features of children of primary school age 7-9 years old with hearing impairment are in the slow and uneven development of objective activities. These children often do not cope with tasks in which it is necessary to use any additional object, they perform them directly, without the help of this tool. Help the child understand the essence, show by example.
Hearing-impaired children have difficulty with tasks that require analysis and generalization. It is difficult for them to recognize their own emotions and even more difficult for them to describe them. This leads to problems such as anxiety, withdrawal and aggressiveness.
Teaching a hearing-impaired child emotional resilience can help them with interpersonal relationships and social adjustment.
Sneaky. Primary School Pedagogy
Both elementary school teachers and parents of first-graders will be interested in the works of Ivan Pavlovich Podlasov, in which he talks about the upbringing, formation and education of children.
Age characteristics of children of primary school ageMean sees in the socialization and adaptation of children to a new, adult, school life. This requires the connection of teachers and parents, their desire to pass on their experience to the children, to form a holistic personality capable of self-knowledge and self-improvement.
The development of a child depends on both internal (properties of the body) and external (human environment) conditions. By creating a favorable external environment, one can help overcome internal instability. It is also necessary to take into account the age characteristics of children of primary school age.
Table briefly describing the theory of pedagogy of elementary school Podlasov:
|Pedagogy||Science of education, upbringing and training|
|Subject of Pedagogy||Development and formation of a holistic personality of a student|
|Functions of Pedagogy||Formation of tasks and goals of education|
|Tasks of Pedagogy||Generalization and systematization of knowledge about education and training|
Education is the transfer of experience to the younger generation, the formation of moral values
Learning is a process of interaction between students and teachers aimed at the development of students
Education is a system of ways of thinking, knowledge and skills that a student has mastered in the learning process
Development - changing the qualitative and quantitative processes of the student
Formation is the process of child evolutionunder the supervision of a teacher
|Pedagogical trends||Humanistic and authoritarian|
|Research Methods||Empirical and theoretical|
The main thing to note is that love your children, praise them for every victory, help them overcome difficulties, and then the cute kid will turn into an educated, well-mannered and happy adult.