Monochorionic diamniotic twins are the most common case of identical twins. More specifically, they are twins. But in medicine they are still called twins. The term "monochorial" means that babies have one placenta for two. Of course, it is easy to guess that this is not very good. It often happens that one fetus, developing faster, suppresses the other, absorbing more nutrients. As a result, children are born with a significant difference in weight.
Types of twins
A happy mother expecting twins is always intrigued by the question of whether her little children will resemble each other, or whether their resemblance will be insignificant. Unfortunately, it's always a surprise. No doctor can diagnose the development of twins in advance and with absolute certainty. But if it is extremely accurate to establish which twins a woman has, then it will be possible to make quite bold predictions about the children and the degree of their similarity. This is easy to do, especially in early pregnancy.
There are only two types of twins: monozygotic and dizygotic. In turn, they can shareinto subspecies. In fact, what kind of twins a mother wears largely determines the complexity of the ongoing pregnancy, the risks and complications associated with the gestation period and the birth process. It has been established that monochorionic diamniotic twins (photos of such twins can be seen in this article) occur most often during the development of babies from one egg.
"Monozygous twins" are twins that develop from the same egg. Such separation of the zygote can occur at different times. That is why there are several types of monozygotic twins. Depending on when the separation occurred, biamniotic, bichorial, diamniotic, dichorial twins are distinguished. As a rule, with some exceptions, monozygotic twins are of the same sex: either boys or girls. At the same time, they are very similar to each other, and differences in appearance only appear with age.
Types of monozygotic twins
Monochorionic diamniotic twins are the most common. It occurs 4-8 days after the fertilization of the egg. But this must happen strictly before the zygote is implanted in the uterine wall.
The term "monochorial" itself means that both fetuses receive nutrition from the same placenta. This, of course, comes with the risk of some complications. Almost always after the birth of children, one can see that one baby is somewhat larger and more developed,than the second. This is because, by suppressing his brother or sister, he consumes more nutrients. If a woman does not get enough minerals and vitamins, the second baby may not survive.
The term "diamniotic" means that each fetus has its own amniotic sac in which it grows and develops. But monochorionic twins can also be monoamniotic, which is a much more dangerous option.
Monochorionic monoamniotic twins
Monochorionic monoamniotic twins are one of the most dangerous. In this case, separation occurs from 8 to 12 days from the moment of fertilization. As a rule, this occurs during the period when the zygote is implanted in the endometrium. The result is that both fetuses not only share a common placenta, but also an amniotic sac.
Of course, monochorionic diamniotic twins are dangerous, but in the case of monoamniotic twins, this is associated with the likelihood of developing even more complications. For example, babies can become entangled in each other's umbilical cords. In addition, such a pregnancy gives a large number of deviations. The most dangerous is the birth of Siamese twins. But if the separation occurs on time, and the pregnancy turns out to be without complications, then the babies born will have the same sex and blood type. And it will be difficult even for your own parents to distinguish them in childhood.
Fraternal twins are called"dizygotic". They not only have their own amniotic sac, but also their own placenta. In general, this is what distinguishes twins from twins. They don't have to look alike at all. The blood type can also vary. In the case of dizygotic twins, children born can be both same-sex and opposite-sex. They are similar, like brothers and sisters, born from the same parents, but at different times.
How to get pregnant with twins?
That monochorionic diamniotic twins are twins, this is understandable, but is it possible to somehow provoke such a pregnancy? This question is asked by thousands of women. Of course, you can find a lot of traditional medicine tips, but they are all grandmother's tales. Provoke multiple pregnancy can only in the case of artificial insemination. This is a kind of gift from doctors to parents who have not been able to conceive a child for many years.
But in all other cases it's good luck. This is a kind of gift of fate, a rare and therefore very valuable gift. Multiple pregnancies happen one in a hundred. Of course, if twins have already been born in the ascending line, then the woman's chances increase. But even this fact does not guarantee her the desired twins.
When can multiple pregnancy be established?
Of course, there are many signs by which it is easy to establish pregnancy. Monochorionic diamniotic twins can only be detected by ultrasound.The first suspicion of twins may arise from the gynecologist. Often, a specialist in his field, who has some experience in determining twins, can understand what's what else when registering a pregnant woman in a antenatal clinic. This will be indicated to him by the unusually large size of the uterus for the term. Usually such a clear difference is already visible by 11 weeks.
Sometimes, for this reason, the gestational age can be incorrectly determined. But the unusually large size of the uterus prompts the doctor to send the woman for additional examination. She has her first ultrasound at 6 weeks. It is at this time that it is easiest to diagnose a multiple pregnancy. With an increase in the period of intrauterine development, this becomes more difficult. There are cases when doctors simply do not see a second baby in the later stages. As a result, the birth of not one, but two children for a young mother becomes a surprise.
Difficulties in multiple pregnancy
Monochorial twins, unlike dichorionic twins, have their complications. Children eat from one common placenta, which means that one baby may not have enough nutrients. Childbirth in such cases occurs at 34-36 weeks. Babies are born not naturally, but through a caesarean section. So much safer for both children and mothers. Often there is a significant difference between the weight of newborns. It can be 500 grams.
To safely carry both babies, a woman must eat hard, monitor her he alth, take all the drugs that she prescribesdoctor. Regular walks in the fresh air are very useful. A woman's body should have enough vitamins and minerals.
Monochorionic diamniotic twins. Childbirth
A woman carrying twins should be more carefully monitored by a gynecologist. This, of course, is associated with the risks of complications. The probability of premature birth is very high in multiple pregnancies. If, bearing one child, a woman nurses up to 39-40 weeks, then in the case of twins, this is a rarity. As a rule, babies are born between 32 and 37 weeks.
Vaginal births are allowed by doctors only in case of correct presentation of fetuses and absence of complications and threats. But most often they do a caesarean section. Natural childbirth is especially dangerous in the case of monochorionic monoamniotic pregnancy. Babies can become tangled in each other's umbilical cords, making it difficult to save them. It is also dangerous for the mother in labor. Monochorionic diamniotic twins can be born naturally, but doctors rarely allow such delivery. Women with multiple fetuses are advised to go to bed at 28 weeks pregnant.