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Physical education: concept, definition, characteristics and essence
Physical education: concept, definition, characteristics and essence
Anonim

The concept of physical education originated in ancient times. Primitive people, getting food and shelter for themselves, were constantly on the move and became stronger, faster and more enduring. All this happened because day after day they performed the same physical actions - exercises. The awareness of this process by the members of the tribe formed the basis of physical education. Later, people came to understand that the earlier a person began to do the exercises, for example, in early childhood, the more perfect his body became by adulthood.

Organized form of physical education originated in Ancient Greece. In antiquity, young people were specially taught exercises, sports and military games so that they would become stronger and more resilient. In our article, we will consider such concepts as physical culture, sports, physical education,preparation and perfection. All of them are inextricably linked and are part of a complex process of harmonious development of a person's personality.

Physical education: definition, concepts, purpose, tasks

The essence of physical education

For the harmonious development of a child, three components are necessary: ​​physical development, cultural and spiritual. To be he althy and calmly perceive any energy flows, a person must be strong and hardy. Without a doubt, all three components are interconnected and the development of each of them should occur evenly and not to the detriment of others. But it is physical education that is a prerequisite for the comprehensive development of the individual. Parents make a big mistake by emphasizing aesthetic, moral and labor education, but forgetting that it is in a he althy body that a he althy mind is formed.

So, physical education is a learning process that is aimed at maintaining and strengthening he alth during physical activity. The purpose of this process is to optimize the physical qualities and personal culture of a person in order to realize the potential inherent in him, as well as to inculcate a he althy lifestyle in general. Physical education begins from the first days of a person's life.

The objectives of such a pedagogical process are as follows:

  1. He alth promotion, prevention of flat feet, hardening, the formation of correct posture.
  2. Mastering the technique of performing elementary sports exercises.
  3. Development of motor qualities(quickness, flexibility, dexterity).
  4. Introduction to independent exercise, daily morning exercises, the formation of interest in sports.
  5. Development of coordination (balance, accuracy and responsiveness to signals, orientation in space).
  6. Formation of knowledge on personal hygiene, the need to observe the daily routine, the impact of physical activity on he alth.
  7. Education of discipline, determination, courage when doing physical exercises.

In theory, the basic concepts of physical education include:

  1. Physical development.
  2. Physical fitness.
  3. Physical perfection.
  4. Sport.

The last concept should be considered separately from physical education, which is aimed at strengthening physical he alth. The main task of sport is to achieve maximum results and receive awards.

Let's consider all these concepts of the physical education system in more detail.

Principles of physical education

Principles of physical education

In the process of achieving the goal, most teachers adhere to the following general provisions of the system:

  1. Harmonious and comprehensive development of personality. Throughout his life, a person should strive to achieve harmony. Moreover, both in spiritual and physical development.
  2. Development of connection between physical education and life practice. This principle can be viewed from two aspects. From oneOn the one hand, physical education is aimed at making people more socially relaxed, and on the other hand, it is designed to train personnel who can work with high productivity and bravely defend their homeland.
  3. Development of he alth-improving orientation of physical education. When developing a system of exercises, it is important to ensure not only the preservation of he alth, but also its strengthening. When planning training loads, it is necessary to take into account the age, gender and he alth of the person performing the exercises.

The general principles listed above are aimed at creating favorable conditions and opportunities for achieving the goal and objectives of physical education. To implement them, a number of effective methods and techniques are used.

General pedagogical and specific methods

For the development of physical qualities and the formation of motor skills and techniques, a number of means are used. Basic concepts of physical education methodology include two groups of methods: specific and general pedagogical. To solve the above tasks, it is optimal to combine the methods and techniques from the first and second groups.

Specific methods include:

  1. Strict implementation of regulated exercises. This method presupposes the obligatory organization of the activities of the involved people. All actions performed by them are regulated by a specially developed program, which takes into account the intensity of the load, provides for rest intervals, the order of repetition of exercises, etc.
  2. Gaming. At the coreThis method is based on the interaction between children in the process of performing physical exercises or during a sports game. It allows you to develop such qualities as dexterity, initiative, quick orientation.
  3. Competitive. This method is like a game. It is used to increase the activity of children involved in exercises. Competitions can be control, official, team.

The general pedagogical group includes:

  1. Verbal methods. This group includes methods of speech influence on students.
  2. Visual. The methods of this group involve demonstrating physical exercises before performing them.

Physical education as part of physical culture

Throughout life, human activity should be aimed at physically developing, improving their physical activity, strengthening he alth and adhering to a he althy lifestyle. All this can be achieved through physical education, development, preparation and perfection. All of the above processes are part of physical education. The main goal of this area of ​​social activity is to improve he alth and develop the psychophysical abilities of a person in the process of his motor activity. Thus, the concepts of physical culture and physical education are inextricably linked.

From birth, a person has such qualities as strength, speed, endurance, flexibility, dexterity. To be convinced of this, it is enough to look at a five-month-olda baby who easily brings his foot to his mouth. Such flexibility can only be envied. But after all, the mother begins to perform elementary exercises with the child almost from birth. This includes exercises, and massage, and the use of other developmental techniques.

The concept of physical education in theory involves the development of all human qualities inherent in nature. But since this process is pedagogical, it has a strictly organized character. Thus, the upbringing of physical qualities that are given to the child from birth takes place. Performing the exercises provided for by the program, he becomes more resilient, strong, flexible. In the process of such upbringing, the child is taught motor skills and abilities, the formation of his need for physical education.

Physical development

Physical development as one of the concepts of physical education

Throughout a person's life, the formation, formation and change of the morphofunctional properties of his body takes place. This is physical development. For each person, this process proceeds differently under the direct influence of age-related changes, genetic factors and environmental conditions.

Physical development is 1 concept of physical education. It is accompanied by changes in the indicators of three different groups:

  1. Physical development. This group includes the following indicators: body weight and length, posture, volumes of individual body parts and their shapes.
  2. He alth indicators. When assessing the physical development of a person,changes in various body systems: nervous, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, nervous, digestive and others.
  3. Development of physical qualities. This group includes indicators of strength, endurance, speed. As a rule, their intensive growth is observed until the age of 25 years. Over the next 20-25 years, physical development remains at the same level. After age 50, as we age, the performance of all three groups gradually worsens. At this time, growth may decrease, he alth deteriorates, and muscle mass decreases.

It is safe to say that the concepts of physical development and physical education follow one from the other. They should be applied at the same time. So, in the process of physical education there is a direct impact on the physical development of a person, its optimization and improvement. Only with the help of regular exercise can improvement be achieved in all three groups.

Physical fitness

Physical training

With regular exercise, the human body physically develops and improves. At the same time, the formation of his motor skills and abilities takes place, his working capacity and endurance increase. This is where the next concept of physical education is manifested.

Physical training is the result of the use of exercises, embodied in performance and mastery of motor skills and skills. Preparation as one of the concepts of physical education can be general and special. Between them there arecertain differences.

General physical training involves increasing the level of physical development and motor activity to achieve success in various fields of activity. In other words, a person develops physically in order to become more successful in all areas.

Special training is aimed at achieving results in certain activities, specific sports, professions. In this case, certain requirements may be imposed on a person's motor abilities.

Physical Perfection

Striving for the ideal is inherent in man by nature. This is the basis of the next concept of education - physical perfection. The formation of the ideal of physical development and preparedness took place historically, in accordance with the requirements of life that prevailed at a certain point in time.

For physical perfection - the concepts of physical education - the main indicators are:

  1. Good he alth. This criterion is based on the fact that only a physically he althy person can quickly adapt to any, including adverse conditions of life, work, life, etc.
  2. Developed physique. The body of a physically developed person must correspond to certain proportions. Particular attention is paid to correct posture.
  3. High performance (general and special).
  4. Development of physical qualities.
  5. Possession of general motor skills and abilities, the ability to quickly master new movements.

Thus, a physically perfect person shouldbe comprehensively and harmoniously developed, be he althy, have a beautiful body and have high performance.

Sport in human life

Sport as one of the concepts of physical education

The following concept of physical education is usually taken out of the scope of physical education. Sports are competitions, special preparation for them, the desire to obtain high results, achievements and awards. On the one hand, the concept of physical education includes some sports related to movement and the performance of certain exercises. But on the other hand, all the actions performed are aimed at strengthening the he alth of the practitioner, and not at achieving any specific heights or receiving an award. Therefore, physical education is considered separately from sports.

The concept of physical education among the methods used in the learning process also includes competitions. They allow you to compare and compare the capabilities of a person. Sports competitions are always strictly regulated. They contain the conditions for performing certain exercises and evaluation criteria, specially designed for each specific sport. Preparation for the competition is carried out in the form of a special sports training.

Physical education of the first year of life

Physical education of children of the first year of life

The baby makes its first movements in the womb. With the birth of his physical activity only intensifies. At the same time, reflexes appear: grasping, crawling, walking. Asdevelopment of the nervous and musculoskeletal system, the child masters his body. And in order for motor development to occur in accordance with age, it is necessary to create conditions for the physical education of the baby. And it begins from the first days of the baby's life.

The concept of physical education of children of 1 year of life includes the following methods of influencing the child:

  1. Massage. In relation to a small child, such methods of influencing the surface of his body as stroking, rubbing, kneading, lightly tapping, tapping are used.
  2. Physical exercises (gymnastics). When they are performed, the musculoskeletal system is prepared for further actions: grabbing, throwing, crawling, walking, running.

Particular attention in the process of physical education of the baby is given to massage. Its different types have a certain physiological effect on the body of the crumbs. For example, stroking improves blood circulation, dilates blood vessels, and relaxes. As a result, sleep becomes deeper, and performance is restored faster. If the child has no contraindications, starting from 1 month, he is prescribed both physical exercises and massage in the complex.

The characteristic of the concept of physical education involves the regular performance of actions in the learning process. This means that classes with the child should be carried out systematically, at the same time of day, preferably in the morning. Massage should be done before or alternate with exercise.

In the second and third year of lifephysical education classes are connected - one of the forms of his training and education. They are aimed at the active development of motor skills, the improvement of basic movements. These are crawling, rolling and throwing a ball, stepping over an obstacle, playing with adults.

Thus, already from the first weeks of a child's life, it is necessary to devote enough time to strengthening his body, developing movements and the psyche.

Basic concepts of the theory of physical education of preschoolers

Physical education of preschoolers

Climbing, running and walking, which only developed at an early age, continue to improve in the kindergarten period. After 3 years, the child may well perform the simplest exercises with objects in his hands or engage in simulators. In order for it to develop physically, it is necessary to create all the conditions for it.

At preschool age, the child has access to exercises for coordination of movements, balance. With it, you can play games where you need to throw and catch the ball, throw light objects. At this age, the complex of exercises must include running, jumping on one or two legs, over an obstacle or from a small step.

One of the basic concepts of the theory of physical education is physical development, to achieve which it is necessary to stimulate the child's need for exercise. The example of an adult also plays an important role here. No need to forbid the child to jump and run.

The article discusses the concepts of physical culture, sports, physical education, which are aimed at a comprehensive andharmonious development of man and improvement of his body. In the process of learning, his physical abilities, working capacity, social activity increase. Physical education should be practiced from early childhood, gradually increasing the load and creating conditions for mastering new skills.

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