Educational, educational, training process is a certain set of programs that represent an interconnected continuously functioning system. Working harmoniously and complementing each other, they are able to beneficially influence the formation of the correct physiological and psychological characteristics in a child. In education, in particular, physical education, there must be special rules and criteria that must be strictly adhered to in order to achieve a positive result. An example of such rules is the specific principles of physical education. Let's take a look at what they are.
What are the principles of physical education?
Under the definition of "principles" can be understood certain rules in various areas of our lives, which must be followed. Especially immutable rules are important in such an area of children's and youth education as physical development. In order to avoid injuries and adverse effects on the body, in this educational areathere must be strict discipline.
There are general methodological and specific principles of physical education. Each of these provisions strictly controls the various training processes, taking into account all the characteristics of the body, and each of them is undoubtedly important for the teacher and students.
General methodological principles
General methodological principles are a set of basic rules on which the formation of further methods of education in the field of sports culture is based. Unlike specific, general methodological principles of physical education are few and reflect only the essence of the training process.
They include three very important components:
- Consciousness. This principle consists in an adequate perception of the sequence and patterns of various kinds of physical exercises. It also characterizes the understanding of the influence of training on one's own physical development, which is expressed in the correct and competent performance of exercises, taking into account the recommendations of the coach and observing discipline.
- Activity. The principle characterizes the degree of inclusion in the training activity. Depending on the level of activity of a person, his training program is built, their intensity, the degree of load is determined. Activity largely reflects both the general indicators of physical characteristics and he alth status, and the quality of the developed training program.
- Visibility. The principle characterizes the degree of inclusion of various sense organs in the process of perception anddevelopment of training activities. Any physical exercise should be based on this rule.
Specific principles of physical education and their general characteristics
These rules, in contrast to the basic methodological ones, are more specific. They are used in the process of compiling programs for certain age groups, for developing or professional activities. Together with general methods, they are able to have a positive effect on physical activity.
There are several basic specific principles of physical education, briefly discussed in this article.
Continuity of process
The main feature of continuity is the correct sequential construction of classes. This specific principle of physical education is based on the premise that lighter exercises are recommended to be done at the very beginning of training, gradually moving on to more difficult ones. Also, before starting to study new material, it is necessary to review previously studied.
The key rule here is the definition of a complex of physical activities as an integral indivisible system.
This specific principle of physical education is based on alternating periods of work and rest during physical exercise.
Keep in mind that pause intervals are important. For example, if the rest period is too long, then the so-called regression may occur, and the body will returnto the previous level. And if the rest is too short, then the body will not have time to recover, and during further training, its resources will be depleted.
Also, in physical education, it is not always necessary to take into account the standard intervals of work and rest. Often there are situations when these periods are adjusted individually.
This specific principle of physical education is interpreted as the need to increase the load and update the training programs in the direction of complexity in the presence of progress.
This principle works to improve skills when a person's physical abilities change during training. In any case, updating training programs from lighter to more complex, and increasing loads should occur gradually and systematically so that the body feels the changes, but does not fall into a state of stress.
Adaptive Balanced Dynamics
This principle of specific physical education reflects several basic provisions that characterize the dynamics of physical activity.
- During the training process, the amount of loads should be of such strength and intensity that its use could not cause adverse deviations in the body.
- With some adaptation, getting used to physical activity and the transition of the body to a stable state, their parameters should change in the direction of increasing strength and intensity.
- The presence of this total type of load implies,at a certain point in the entire training process, or their strengthening, or stabilization, or decrease.
This principle of specific physical education consists in presenting a training complex as a kind of closed cycle, built from certain stages and activities.
This principle allows you to divide sets of exercises into weekly, monthly and yearly, which makes it possible to monitor the progress of a person involved in a certain cycle of physical activity, to create progressive programs aimed at gradually increasing the positive effect of exercise.
Age adequacy is a specific principle of physical education, which takes into account, among other things, certain stages of the ontogeny of the body and adjusts the training program based on them.
For example, in the preschool developmental period, loads are focused on broad interactions that allow the development of more general skills of the student. During the school period, the development of sensitive areas of the body is taken into account, which give impetus to the development of many physical qualities of the child. During the difficult stage of puberty, training is selected individually and very carefully.
Additional principles in cyclic sports
Many books on the specific principles of physical education say that different sports form their own individual rules.For example, cyclic and non-cyclic loads have their own significant differences.
So, in cyclic sports there are additional specific principles of physical education, their characteristics are presented below.
- Comprehensive development. This rule has an important place in the formation of a person entering a big sport. It lies in the fact that the personality of an athlete is formed through many years of various training. In the process of such long-term training, not only a set of impeccable physical skills is laid, but also a certain sports culture, strong emotional and volitional qualities, and intellectual characteristics. Also, physical training should be directly related not only to the sport in which a person develops, but also include a variety of general exercises.
- Waviness of loads. In cyclic sports, it is very important to take into account such a feature as the wave nature of loads. The fact is that the athlete must be able to work at different distances, with varying degrees of intensity. In a long period of work, such as a year, there should be some variation in physical activity, in a certain progression compiled by the coaching staff.
- Specialization. A very important point for the formation of an athlete. It takes into account the peculiarity of the sport, the period of the start of classes, as well as the main programs. Specialization has its distribution not only to a certain physical training of students, but also to the developmentemotional qualities, tactical and technical features. So, for example, if we take skiing, then there are certain predispositions of this or that person to surpass the amateur level and become a worthy athlete. This specialization also takes into account the fact that professional training will begin only after the age of fifteen, and the fact that young athletes will compete in short distances, moving to longer ones in subsequent competitions. All this is interpreted by certain rules and patterns of human development in ontogenesis.
The article briefly reviewed the general methodological, specific principles of physical education. Without these two most important sets of carefully developed rules and criteria, it is impossible to build any, even the simplest, developing program.
The rules take into account many factors, from the reason a person takes up sports to the physical characteristics of a particular age group. Also, the specific principles of physical education were formed on the basis of the conviction that with many years of professional development of a certain sport, a strictly appropriate sequence of classes, cyclicality and progression should be observed. Otherwise, a positive result will not be achieved.
Specific principles of physical education contain rules and recommendations formed by the experience of various athletes and coaches. That is why they are a kind of postulate for compilingtraining programs of varying difficulty.