In any pedagogical process, certain methods and techniques are implemented. They vary depending on the goals and objectives. It also matters in what area they are used. In this article, we will consider the specific methods of physical education and the possibilities of their application.
What are physical education methods?
So, what are the methods of physical education. These are methods, techniques, possibilities for performing physical exercises. They are of two kinds. Specific methods of physical education are used exclusively in the process of physical training. While general pedagogical methods are used both in the process of physical education and in other areas of training, education and development.
During the development of specific methods of physical education, several directions were identified. Initially, they proved themselves well and began to developplayful and competitive. The game room was productive in working with the younger generation. Competitive is reflected in the Olympic Games, qualifying competitions, championships of regions and cities.
Both methods achieved the desired results. However, there was always the question of their regulation. They still needed to be sorted and organized. This was also explained by the need to fulfill strictly set tasks for teaching movements and educating motor abilities. This trend determined the emergence of three groups of methods. Game and competitive exercises have retained their positions, and along with them, methods of strictly regulated exercises have appeared.
The interaction of these groups of methods was not conflict-free. In some countries, for example in Europe, the competitive method was rejected, while in others, for example in America, they were against the methods of a strictly regulated exercise. Consequently, their complex application has long been considered ineffective. However, it should be noted that each specific method, carried out by itself, cannot be considered fully. Only a systematic and complex application of all methods can ensure the full achievement of all the tasks of physical education in general.
General pedagogical and specific methods of physical education: what is the difference?
In principle, their difference is clear. It is expressed in areas of application. Specific methods of physical education include:
- strictly regulated exercise;
- gameexercise form;
- competition method.
It is these methods that help to realize specific narrowly focused goals and objectives of physical education and development of physical qualities.
General pedagogical methods are represented by two large groups: verbal and visual. Undoubtedly, these methods are also involved in the process of physical education, but specific methods of physical education and development are still more valuable.
Besides, applying any one method is inefficient. Only the complex use of methodological principles allows us to achieve our goals as fully as possible. Next, consider a detailed description of the specific methods and techniques of physical education.
Restricted Exercise Method
Each method used in the learning process makes a great contribution to the achievement of the goal. However, a mandatory component of specific methods of physical education is a strictly regulated exercise. Indeed, this is the difference between physical education classes. All of them are built using this method. It is he who is fundamental. All other methods act in conjunction with it and complement it.
The essence of this method is to perform physical exercises in a strictly prescribed form and with a certain load. All exercises have certain rules and procedures. It is their observance that is the basis for the implementation of this method.
This method has a number of advantages. Thanks to him, you can:
- do physical activity in accordance with a clear plan (number of exercises, their combination, order of implementation);
- regulate the load (taking into account the state of he alth and development of those involved, as well as based on the goals set);
- clearly follow the alternation of rest and load;
- influence the development of specific physical qualities;
- apply physical exercise to people of different ages;
- see the dynamics of the development of physical qualities (heaviness at the beginning of the exercise and the appearance of lightness as it is mastered);
- master and learn physical exercise.
This method, in turn, is divided into two subgroups, namely: training in motor actions and education of physical qualities.
Specific methods of physical education also include the method of game reproduction of exercises. It is undoubtedly good in the process of teaching children of preschool and primary school age. Indeed, in preschool age, the game is the leading activity. Even at the beginning of schooling, play still plays an important role in the education and upbringing of children.
The game method as a specific method of the process of physical education allows solving educational, he alth and educational tasks.
This method, like any other, has its own characteristics. These include:
- the game has a complex effect on a person, because in the process of gaming activity, manyqualities develop together, closely interacting with each other;
- this feature emerges from the first and is its opposite: with the help of the game you can develop a certain physical quality, it is enough to choose a certain game;
- effective education of physical functions in the process of competition with others;
- the formation of many non-physical qualities and aspects of the personality (imagination, creativity, thinking, independence, initiative, purposefulness, etc.) through the use of all kinds of ways to achieve the goal;
- not regulated performance of game actions, improvisation is allowed;
- formation and development of moral qualities in the key of confrontation with rivals (mutual assistance, cooperation, collectivism, will, discipline);
- inculcating interest and desire to develop physical qualities, creating a positive emotional mood and interest during the game (especially in children).
However, this method is not perfect either, it has a significant drawback: the limited ability to learn new movements and the lack of control over the load on the body. This is especially detrimental to the learning of preschool children.
Specific methods of physical education, their characteristics and application features are prescribed in educational programs. Among them, the competitive method is also described. The essence of the method lies in the fact that all types of physical exercises are performed in the form of competitions. It boosts enthusiasmenthusiasm and interest of those who are engaged in physical culture. The competitive moment spurs those involved to show the best results. However, it is important to keep in mind that competitors must be prepared for the lifts they will compete in.
The use of a specific method of physical education in this case is manifested:
- in official competitions of various levels (championships, qualifying competitions, championships);
- as part of the lesson (sports training, relay race, physical education and sports class).
Thanks to this method, you can:
- influence the manifestation of motor activity, achieving its maximum manifestation;
- determine the level of motor skills;
- achieve maximum physical activity;
- influence the development of strong-willed qualities.
Verbal and sensory methods
Despite the fact that literature and visualization are part of general pedagogical methods, they also apply to specific methods of physical education. Thanks to them, in the process of physical education and upbringing, it is possible to use a wide range of words and sensory information.
Using literature, you can communicate the necessary knowledge, enhance and activate perception, evaluate and analyze the results of work, control and correct the behavior of students.
But with the help of visibility, you can influence the senses: visual, auditory and muscle analyzer.
Stress and rest
Specific methods of the process of physical education are carried out through physical exercises. The main thing in them is a properly selected load and its competent alternation with rest.
Load is considered to be the magnitude of the impact on the body. Here, first of all, the amount of this impact is meant.
It is customary to distinguish between standard and variable loads. The standard load is the same in each period of the exercise. But a variable load implies an increase in the course of the exercise.
Specific methods of physical education and their characteristics also depend on whether the effect of the load on the body is constant, or whether this effect is intermittent. The intermittent nature of the load is ensured by alternating it with periods of rest.
Rest is known to be passive and active. Passive implies relative rest, without performing any motor exercises. While active rest is a switch to another activity, it is important that it be different from the one that caused the fatigue.
Specific methods of physical education involve the use of outdoor activities. After all, in the process of its implementation, you can continue to develop the necessary skills and physical qualities. For example, during active rest between gymnastic exercises, a game is used to develop agility and speed.
Thus, the applied load (volume, intensity, orderrepetitions, oscillations and alternations with rest phases) and the nature of the rest between the phases of the load determine the methods used during the exercise.
The order in which methods are applied
The period of mastering different motor skills involves the use of different methods at different stages of learning. At the very beginning, the following methods are applied:
- dissected constructive exercise (used in cases where the motor action cannot be mastered entirely at once - it is studied by connecting the parts in series);
- a holistic constructive exercise (a motor action is mastered in its entirety at once, some specific details are highlighted and lead-up exercises are used to help the holistic mastery of the action).
As motor skills improve, the following methods become available:
- selective-directed exercise (the use of special exercises that promote the development of certain functions and motor skills; they are also aimed at certain body capabilities and their increase);
- adjoint exercise (both motor qualities and forms of motor actions develop simultaneously);
- standard-repetitive exercises (involves repeating movements without much change in them; this can be, for example, constantly passing a distance at a certain speed or doing exercises constantly in one way);
- variable exercise (oppositebased on constant changes in the course of exercise; this may be an increase in the load, a change in the intervals between sets or the external conditions for the exercise);
- combined method (allows mixing different methods and types of exercises);
- complex circuit training (implies the sequential execution of 8-10 exercises; between such sets there may or may not be rest breaks; various combinations of exercises can develop speed, endurance, pace, strength. For example, continuous training brings up strength, interval exercises affect the development of speed and endurance, and training with single rest intervals - speed and pace).
Summary of conclusions
Briefly, the specific methods of physical education can be described as follows:
- Methods of physical education are methods, techniques, and opportunities for performing physical exercises.
- There are two types of methods: specific (only for physical education) and general pedagogical (for all areas of development).
- Specific methods - methods of strictly regulated exercise, game and sports methods.
- General didactic methods - verbal and visual methods.
- Methods of strictly regulated exercise - training in motor actions and education of physical qualities.
- The game has a complex effect on a person, because in the process of game activity, many qualities develop together, closelyinteracting with each other.
- The essence of the competitive method lies in the fact that all types of physical exercises are performed in the form of competitions. This increases the enthusiasm, enthusiasm and interest of those involved in physical education. The competitive moment encourages those involved to show the best results.
- Using literature, you can communicate the necessary knowledge, enhance and activate perception, evaluate and analyze the results of work, control and correct the behavior of students.
- With the help of visibility, you can influence the senses: visual, auditory and muscle analyzer.
- The load applied (volume, intensity, repetition order, oscillation and alternation with rest phases) and the nature of the rest between the load phases determine the methods applied during the exercise.
- Methods are applied in the following sequence: dissected constructive exercise, holistic constructive exercise, selective-directed exercise, conjugate exercise, standard-repetitive exercises, variable exercise, combined method, complex circuit training.