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Low hemoglobin during pregnancy: causes, symptoms, consequences for the child, how to increase
Low hemoglobin during pregnancy: causes, symptoms, consequences for the child, how to increase
Anonim

Throughout pregnancy, women take a clinical blood test several times. According to its results, the doctor can judge the state of he alth of the patient. One of the most important indicators in the analysis is the level of hemoglobin in the blood. Depending on its value, the doctor can make a pregnant woman a diagnosis of "anemia" with the obligatory indication of the degree of the disease. With small deviations of the indicator from the norm, the specialist gives recommendations for adjusting the diet. But most often, low hemoglobin during pregnancy requires more serious treatment with the use of medications. Otherwise, the consequences of anemia can be deplorable for both the mother and the fetus.

The value of hemoglobin during pregnancy

Low hemoglobin during pregnancy

Hemoglobin isa protein found in red blood cells that transports oxygen to tissues. During pregnancy, a woman experiences fluid accumulation and physiological dilution of blood. As a result, the concentration of hemoglobin decreases. In addition, as the child grows in utero, iron and folic acid stores are consumed. If a woman had a deficiency of these substances in the body before pregnancy, then problems associated with a decrease in hemoglobin may arise already in the early stages. This issue should be discussed in more detail already at the planning stage.

Normal hemoglobin level in a he althy woman is 120-150 g/l. During childbearing, this figure decreases. On average, it is 110-155 g / l in the first trimester and 100-140 g / l in the third. Low hemoglobin during pregnancy must be increased, otherwise the fetus will not receive enough oxygen, which will lead to intrauterine growth retardation. This condition carries no less danger for the expectant mother. A disease in which there is a decrease in the concentration of hemoglobin with a simultaneous decrease in the number of red blood cells in the blood is called anemia. And it requires emergency treatment.

Causes of low hemoglobin

As mentioned above, during the gestation of a woman, an increase in the volume of circulating blood occurs in a woman. This leads to a relative decrease in hemoglobin after the 20th week of pregnancy. But an increase in blood volume is far from the only cause of anemia. Although it occurs in absolutely all women. There are otherscauses of low hemoglobin during pregnancy:

  • increase in the need of the fetus for vitamins and microelements, in particular iron and folic acid, and their deficiency in the mother;
  • multiple pregnancy;
  • the gap between past and present pregnancy is less than three years;
  • exacerbation of chronic diseases, history of bleeding;
  • hormonal changes in the body;
  • intestinal dysbacteriosis;
  • polyhydramnios;
  • stress and nervous strain;
  • toxicosis in the early stages;
  • taking iron-absorbing medications.

The maximum decrease in hemoglobin in the blood occurs at 32 weeks of gestation.

Symptoms of iron deficiency anemia

Symptoms of low hemoglobin during pregnancy

Sometimes a disease associated with a decrease in the level of hemoglobin in the blood proceeds without visible signs. But most often, anemia appears simultaneously with the confirmation of this condition by the results of a general blood test. Symptoms of low hemoglobin during pregnancy:

  • fatigue, weakness, decreased performance;
  • pallor of the skin, dizziness;
  • appearance of sores and cracks in the corners of the lips;
  • hair loss, brittle and brittle nails;
  • shortness of breath even with little physical exertion;
  • non-standard taste preferences (the desire to eat a piece of chalk is not the norm).

But the presence of one or all of the abovesigns is not yet a reason to say that a pregnant woman has anemia. The doctor has the right to make such a diagnosis only on the basis of the results of a general blood test.

Three degrees of anemia in pregnant women

Degrees of anemia during pregnancy

You can judge how serious the situation of a pregnant woman is based on the results of clinical studies. When making a diagnosis, the doctor must indicate the degree of anemia. It depends on the level of hemoglobin in the blood. There are three degrees of anemia during pregnancy:

  1. Light - at a hemoglobin level of 90-110 g/l. Often occurs in the absence of any clinical signs.
  2. Moderate severity - diagnosed at a hemoglobin level of 70-90 g/l. A pregnant woman may observe the appearance of the first symptoms of the disease, to which she often does not pay any attention.
  3. Severe - Diagnosed with a hemoglobin level of 70 g/l or less. At this degree, almost all clinical signs are manifested. During pregnancy, low hemoglobin is dangerous for both the mother and the fetus. The woman is being treated with medication and dietary adjustments.

Why is low hemoglobin dangerous during pregnancy?

Not all women in position understand the seriousness of the situation and often neglect the treatment prescribed to them. But such a condition is dangerous not only for the expectant mother, but also for the fetus. The consequences of low hemoglobin for a pregnant woman are as follows:

  • preeclampsia - accompanied by the appearance of edema, protein in the urine,increased pressure, and in severe cases, it threatens to terminate the pregnancy at any time;
  • risk of developing infectious complications after childbirth;
  • high risk of preterm birth;
  • weak generic activity;
  • bleeding during delivery;
  • risk of placental abruption;
  • problems with lactation, impaired milk production.

Danger to mother and fetus can be eliminated by timely and well-prescribed treatment.

Consequences of anemia for a child

The consequences of low hemoglobin for a child

One of the most important functions of hemoglobin is to carry oxygen to the cells. And we are talking not only about the tissues of the mother, but also the fetus. The consequences of low hemoglobin during pregnancy for a child can be deplorable. Most often, with a severe degree of anemia, there is a delay or cessation of intrauterine development of the baby.

With low hemoglobin, the child's brain receives an insufficient amount of oxygen, and all processes in the body slow down. Not a bright future awaits the baby:

  • mental and physical retardation;
  • problems with the immune system and the functioning of the digestive system;
  • muscle hypotension;
  • problems with the nervous system.

Low hemoglobin in the mother is dangerous because the baby can be born premature and immature, often with anemia in the neonatal period. With a severe degree of the disease, intrauterine fetal death occurs in 12% of cases.

Treatment of anemia inpregnancy

Treatment of anemia during pregnancy

You can increase hemoglobin by eating and taking special medications. Treatment is carried out in a complex. This means that along with iron-rich foods, medications are prescribed by the doctor.

Not all women who try to increase low hemoglobin during pregnancy on their own know that it will be very difficult to do this with proper nutrition alone. Most foods contain non-heme iron. It practically does not affect the level of hemoglobin and does not bring much benefit to the body. Medicines also contain heme iron. It is perfectly absorbed by the body, thereby contributing to an increase in the level of hemoglobin in the blood. Depending on the degree of anemia and the presence of contraindications, the doctor may prescribe medication:

  • "Sorbifer";
  • "Totem";
  • "Tardiferon";
  • "M altofer" and others.

Self-treatment is not welcome. The dosage and timing of taking the drugs are determined by the doctor.

How to increase low hemoglobin during pregnancy with nutrition?

Nutrition to raise low hemoglobin

Reconsider your diet and add iron-rich foods to it, you should still at the planning stage. This will avoid a drop in hemoglobin during pregnancy.

Iron, which enters the body in the composition of products, happens:

  • heme;
  • non-heme.

The first group includesanimal products: liver, tongue, beef, veal, pork, lamb, chicken. But even from them, only 6% of iron is absorbed by the body. The second group includes products of plant origin (buckwheat, mushrooms, legumes, apples, spinach, beets, carrots, pomegranate, etc.). But of these, only 0.2% of iron is absorbed by the body.

In addition to using the above products to increase low hemoglobin during pregnancy, you should follow the daily routine. No less important are daily walks, good sleep, and gymnastics.

Rules for combining products to increase hemoglobin

In case of anemia, you need to make a correct diet. This is due to the fact that some foods prevent the absorption of iron, while others, on the contrary, contribute to this. Recommendations look like this:

  1. Iron is perfectly absorbed with vitamin C. Therefore, it is recommended to drink buckwheat porridge for breakfast or lunch with orange juice.
  2. Calcium interferes with the absorption of iron. For example, the same buckwheat cannot be consumed with milk, cottage cheese and cheese.
  3. Iron is poorly absorbed with a lack of vitamin B12. Therefore, it is useful to take folic acid along with iron-containing foods or medicines.
  4. Pomegranate juice is recommended to be limited to two sips a day as it causes constipation.

Feedback from women about increasing hemoglobin during pregnancy

Prevention of low hemoglobin in pregnant women

According to most women, low hemoglobin withpregnancy is well enhanced by such a drug as "Totem". But you should drink it through a straw, because it strongly stains your teeth. But "Sorbifer", according to reviews, often causes constipation. It is not recommended for women with such a delicate problem.

As for nutrition, many pregnant women have been helped to increase hemoglobin by beet-carrot juice. It is quite easy to prepare it. It is enough to combine 100 ml of freshly squeezed beetroot juice and 100 ml of carrot juice. According to reviews, such a cocktail increases low hemoglobin during pregnancy in just 2 days. For many, this method has proven to be really effective.

Prevention of anemia in pregnant women

The following measures will help prevent a decrease in hemoglobin in a future mother during the period of bearing a baby:

  • taking vitamin and mineral complexes from the first days of pregnancy;
  • take iron-absorbing folic acid;
  • balanced nutrition;
  • avoiding stressful situations;
  • outdoor walks.

During pregnancy, it is important to take all the necessary tests in a timely manner and monitor the level of hemoglobin, since its excess is no less dangerous than its deficiency.

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